In this case, we could say that the three concepts contribute in different ways to improve the teaching-learning process. Teachers, in many cases, are confined to measure students’ performance quantitatively and tend to underestimate all the information that the assessment process offers; which at the same time, would allow to mold the groups in charge objectively, modify teaching methodologies, maximize the learning and produce changes and action plans. Thomas, Allman and Beech (2004), cited in Herrera and Macías (2015), recognize the relevance of evaluation when they highlight its benefits for teachers and students in different aspects: 1) it provides useful information to improve the pedagogical practice of the teacher; 2) it allows the teacher to monitor the student’s learning process and contributes to the improvement of it before the course is finished; 3) it gives the teacher important information about accurate teaching methods for each group of students; 4) it allows students to use the evaluation and the feedback to understand better their learning process; 5) it offers students the opportunity to develop and improve their ability to self-assess and consider evaluation as part of the learning process; 6) it helps students to make decisions on how to acquire knowledge and develop abilities; 7) it helps students to prepare for international examinations, especially if the assessment format is the same one they use in them.
Our main concern as regards CLIL does not focus on the conceptual definition but rather on the application of the basic principles set by educational authorities and researchers to the classroom in general (and in higher educationin particular). It seems quite clear that CLIL relies on a dual-approach which is intended to provide students with curricular contents by using an additional language as a vehicle for communication, improving not only the language competence of the students but also other elements such as their cognitive skills and their cultural awareness. However, the well-shaped conceptual basis for CLIL turn to be more problematic when they are translated into methodological approaches to be used in a classroom, falling into the everlasting gap between theory and practice inlanguage teaching. In other words, the definition of CLIL as a dual-focused approach has to be regarded as programmatic rather than factual, and practices that are “content-oriented but language sensitive” (Wolff, 2007:17) cannot be regarded as Þ rmly established. In fact, research has been devoted to the main problems perceived by teachers and students regarding the implementation of CLIL (Pavón and Rubio, 2010).
The adoption and use of the Digital Library in EAP classrooms has a positive impact on teaching, learning, and research not only while they are students but also once they become professionals. Moreover, it will increase flexibility so that learners can access the education regardless of time and geographical barriers. It can influence the way students are taught and how they learn. It would provide a rich environment and motivation for the teaching and learning process by offering new possibilities for learners and teachers. These possibilities can have an impact on student performance and achievement. Similarly, wider availability of best practices and best course material by means of ICTs can foster better teaching and systematize the four academic language skills: Reading, Listening, Writing and Speaking.
Reinforcement of this trend towards reflection in professional development can be found in the introduction of the EPOSTL into the European discourse and educational policy initiatives on foreign languageteacher preparation and learning (Newby et al., 2007). Developed by the European Council on Modern Languages (ECML) in response to the search for practice and reflection-driven innovative approaches to foreign language teaching and learning, the EPOSTL is one of several practical guides serving the English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching and learning community. Recognition of its value to teacher development and effective practice has meant a surge in its application internationally. Newby (2012b) equates the EPOSTL with seven categories of good practice inteacher preparation that include: promoting teacher autonomy, fostering a reflective mode, reinforcing the rationales and approaches to learning and teaching, making the scope and aims ofteachereducation transparent, rendering the competences explicit, facilitating self- assessment and promoting coherence in classroom practice.
The factor analysis seems to corroborate previous research in the field that found clo- sely ties between specific factors in different types of motivation and attitude developed in the classic works of Gardner (1985). In our study we found a main factor, which we have called “attitudes towards learningEnglish”. This is linked to a set of specific factors related to attitudes towards the teacher, methods employed, classes, materials used and the propo- sed tasks. The presence of this factor seems to indicate that this sample of students clearly perceived, possibly through the teachers, the message that learningEnglish has become a matter of utmost importance. Proposition 227, also known as English for the Children, was going in this direction: to emphasize the need for immigrants to learn English. However, this initiative has resulted in denial of the culture and native languages of many newcomers. In this regard, the role of the teacher as a conduit of attitudes is important. So when teachers suggest that only learningEnglish is important, students may infer that their native language and culture are irrelevant (Sook Lee & Oxelson, 2006; Echevarria, Powers & Short, 2006).). In the end, this may become a barrier to academic achievement (Ball & Lardner, 1997) and affect student self-esteem (Wong Fillmore, 2000).
Throughout this whole process, we have grown up professionally and personally, but we could not have been able to achieve this important accomplishment in our lives without the immense support that God, our families, advisors and friends have given us. First of all, thanks to God we were able to meet, became such a great group of friends, and strengthen up our friendship when we decided to work our thesis project together, and now that we are ending up with this process, we want to thank God again for making this possible, for given us our lives and the opportunity to live this experience. Now we are stronger friends, and most importantly we became family, there is no one we could have rather sharing this process with, all those meetings in our houses, that sometimes lasted a whole day; in which we wrote, we discuss, we laughed, we talked about any topic there might be, now that we can look backwards we now those days were awesome and we will cherish them our whole lives. In addition, we have learned a lot regarding teaching, Colombian context and many others; we became more patient, responsible and learned to know each other more deeply. Even some days were difficult to overcome; we had each other and passed through every situation as a whole.
T he spread ofEnglishlearning and use of all over the world is a phenomenon that nobody can deny or stop. The analysis of that spread has motivated opinions about it that range from “‘imperialist’, ‘predatory’ or ‘killer’ language that threatens linguistic diversity on one hand, to it being a great beneit and gift to the world enabling world citizens to communicate freely with one another” (Ives, 2006, pp. 121-122). Researchers in ELT (EnglishLanguage Teaching) and Applied Linguistics have published a considerable amount of works that support both views. As a consequence of the English growing movement, more English teachers are required to educate prospective students. The response to the need of more Englishlearning opportunities and more eficient professionals capable to respond to that demand is generally contained in a language educational policy issued by governments. A languageeducation policy may include educational reforms that may comprise regulations on various aspects of the languagelearning and teaching such as desired standards, teachers’ qualiications and professional development. It may also include as well as the possible ways to achieve the standards and obtain the qualiications expected.
The first allusion to assessment literacy in edu- cation was proposed by the American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement inEducation, and National Education Association (1990) in their Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessmentof Students. They believed these guidelines were needed to help teachers become aware ofassessmentin and out of classroom contexts. The guidelines can be categorized into two strands. The first deals with instruction; teachers should be able to choose, design, and evaluate valid assess- ments for positive effects on learning, teaching, and schools. The second strand has to do with uses of tests and test results; teachers are expected to know when assessments are being used inappropriately, and to know how to communicate results well to various stakeholders. Later, Stiggins (1995) used the term assessment literacy to include knowledge and skills that stakeholders such as teachers and school administrators should have about assessment.
It was very interesting to witness how, in one of the observed classes, during the individual activity, the teacher used different approaches to explain the same question to different students. She was very resourceful and creative when handling the situation and showed her teaching skills. She drew a chart for one student, translated for another, and gave further explanation of the matter to the last one. This proves that individual needs can be better met on a one to one basis when teachers are sensitive and trained. Most of the classes where students were involved in individual activities ended up either in-group work or in a whole-group discussion. Only one class did not follow this pattern. The task involved self-access material; so, after finishing the individual assignment, students had to check their own work and correct their mistakes, if any, independently, using the answer key available at the end of the book. Therefore, they kept engaged in the activity till the class period was over.
Before keep on indicating the results obtained in the survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
legitimacy of the ‘ native ’ speaker, however much questioned by scholars in applied linguistics (Moussu and Llurda 2008), continues to be dominant for teachers and students in di ﬀ erent educational contexts in the same way as the ‘ native speaker fallacy ’ (Phillipson 1992) – the idea that native speakers of the target language are the best teachers in bilingual education pro- grammes- proves bene ﬁ cial for the sustainability of the industry ofEnglishlanguageeducation. Moreover, Pennycook (2012) wonders whether ‘ it is worth keeping the notion of native speaker at all ’ in applied linguistics and second languageeducation research: ‘ if we can become rather than pass as a native speaker, has the distinctive character of nativeness perhaps become redundant? ’ (76). By reviewing extensive research on the concept of the native speaker, Pennycook asserts the durability of this concept due to the global spread ofEnglish as the languageof globalisation and ‘ the capital to be gained from teaching and learningEnglish ’ (78).
The second point that Scrivener (1994, p.54, 55) has taken into account is the time that the teacher has to distribute in class. He suggests using timetables; this instrument helps “to understand what work is being done in your class.” Therefore, a time table has advantages that give students a whole idea about what will happen in a classroom. It shows a clear idea of the lesson plan to other teachers, and also a time table is like a „skeleton‟ because, it has details and specific information about activities, minutes, days, materials and processes which will be applied in class.
Cooperative learning is one of the most widespread areas of research and practice education. This learning strategy has been applied to a broad variety of content areas at all levels. Cooperative learning is a pedagogical technique in which students work together in small, and mixed groups on a structured learning assignment with the aim of maximizing their own and each other's learning. Cooperative Learning. According to Hall in Arias & Naranjo reseach “Cooperative learning explores the benefits to work in large groups with heterogeneous learners. Larger groups are good because they provide more people for doing big tasks; they increase the variety of people in a group in terms of skill, personalities, background, and they reduce the number of groups for the teacher to monitor”. (Arias & Naranjo Garcia, 2013)
The first chapter covers the first eight levers under the heading Governance & Strategy. In this section, issues such as University Language Policy, Program Objectives and Language Planning, EnglishLanguage Fluency, Staff Incentives, the Role ofLanguage Specialists, Research, and Learning Technologies are presented. The authors differentiate between language policy and language planning exemplifying policy as the university’s constitution and the plan as the road map. They also advise that program objectives have to be linked to competencies and incentives offered to staff involved inEnglish-taught degree programs to compensate the extra time and effort they have to invest, which may take 300% more time than in their domestic language, according to the authors. Collaboration with language specialists, peers and researchers is a must to ensure quality activities, as is investing in technologies that enable such collaboration.
While the teacher is monitoring, and notices some errors in a student’s utterance he should take notes and avoid interrupting. This valuable information can be used as a reference to part from in order to give feedback afterwards (Jones, 2007). The feedback can be given in accuracy or communication. (Littlewood, 1981) illustrates an example of accuracy feedback: When a student says ‘what does you study?’ He might be informed by the teacher that the correct question is ‘what do you study?’ according to structural criteria. On the other hand, an example of a communication feedback is when the same question is answered ‘I’m a nurse.’ The student can know that the message was understood according to communicative criteria even though the structure is not correct.
Abstract: This study examines CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) science educationin two bilingual (Spanish/English) schools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), a region which has recently implemented «Bilingual or Plurilingual Projects» under the provisions of the new «Integral Plan of Foreign Language Teaching in Castilla-La Mancha». By taking a critical sociolinguistic ethnographic perspective, the article explores how CLIL is understood and accomplished in an actual science classroom through English as the medium of instruction. This empirical approach serves as the framework to reflect upon the pedagogical transformation of traditional core areas, such as science, and the ideologies circulating among science teachers regarding their own practice. By looking into interactional events in situated classroom practices, the analysis sheds light on three key issues: 1) the role oflanguage(s) in the process of meaning-making negotiation; 2) the way content is organised, taught and acquired through English; and 3) how teachers and students construct both academic and linguistic knowledge. From a CLIL perspective, the study examines daily teaching and learning practices and how teachers struggle to appropriate this methodology to integrate content and language while facing multiple institutional, pedagogical, logistics and behavioural challenges in the science classroom. Data comprise CLIL science interactions in two 1st grade of compulsory secondary education (CSE) classrooms at two state-funded private bi/ plurilingual schools in La Mancha City (pseudonym), as well as semi-structured interviews carried out with the science teachers involved in the bilingual programme. For this purpose, the CSE lens contributes to better understand how CLIL science education works by establishing links between language policies, teachers’ ideologies and situated practices in relation to wider social processes.
Nowadays English is a language widely spoken all over the world, but this is not what really makes it so important; it is used as the official languagein commerce, education, diplomacy, international business, technical and technological activities of any kind. Jo anne Welling, an English expert in ESOL teaching, teacher’s trainer specialist, and a Cambridge ESOL examinator, who has lived in Ecuador for several years and has acted as the Cambridge Exams Coordinator for Ecuador, highlights the importance ofEnglish a s the “world language”, she says that “whatever career you choose, you are going to need a little bit ofEnglish at least to get by, for your training and for your travel needs” (Welling, 2012).
The last three adequate activities for overcrowded classrooms are described by Benwell (2008). The team spelling contest refers to a competition in which the student who gives the correct spelling wins a point for his or her team. At writing the question game, the teacher forms several teams and mentions an answer, the student who writes the corresponding question receives a point. Finally, the categories activity begins when the teacher names a category, then each student is required to call out an example of the category. If the learner does not give an instance for more than five seconds, he or she has to select other new category and gets out the game. The last student remaining in the contest is the winner
When examining the responses to the survey in light of the research question “How do pre-service teachers experience problem-based learning?” they reveal a highly positive perception of this learning strategy. More than two thirds of participants estimated that pbl contributes to developing academic work related skills. For the first three items (pbl contribution to cognitive development, reflective capacity, and critical reflection) percentages are 90%, 93%, and 93% for the 2010 cohort; and 88%, 96%, and 92% for the 2012 cohort. Items 9, 11, and 12 also rank very high. For Item 9 (pbl contribution to the development of skills to search for, analyze and with which to synthesize information), 79% for the 2010 cohort and 92% for the 2012 cohort respectively agree with the corresponding statement. On the other hand, most participants agree with the statement for Item 11, (pbl contribution to strengthening initial teachereducation), 90% for the 2010 cohort and 100% for the 2012 cohort; and for Item 12 (pbl contribution to personal growth), 86% for the 2010 cohort and 84% for the 2012 cohort agree with the corresponding statement, which contradicts results for Item 8 (pbl contribution to personality development) with a low 31% and 48% respectively. It is worth noting here the significant difference between both cohorts in the perception of Items 4 and 9 which have to do with developing general and specific research skills; even included in the criteria have percentages that range from
Firstly, Jimakorn and Singhasiri (2006) carried out a study to investigate teachers' beliefs in terms of perceptions, opinions, and attitudes towards teaching Englishin large classes. In order to access the opinions and perceptions of the teachers, it was decided to use a questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted with the teaching staff of the Department ofLanguage, School of Liberal Arts, KMUTT. It is composed of three parts with open-ended questions, closed-ended questions and rating scales. Part I, open- ended questions, asks for t he participant‟s personal details, gender, teaching experience, education and where they currently worked. Part II, closed- ended questions, concerns the participant‟s knowledge of their university‟s policy on class size. Facts and Opinions on Large Classes was in Part III.