Regarding this question, the total of the surveyed teachers (fifteen teachers) answered
―Yes‖. It means thatthe 100% of teachers said that when they teach, they consider the different needs that students have. The alternative NO did not have any answer.
However, this was hardly done by most of them during the observed lessons. For instance, from the needs considered inthe present study (age personality-attitude-aptitude- motivation-and learning styles) the mostly considered by the educators was age, since no one of them brought in topics that were not related to their pupils´ age or too difficult for them to understand; in this respect most of the educators were aided by the workbooks they use, which as being developed by professionals, have their content quite properly selected and sequenced; nonetheless, some educators had developed their own syllabuses or modules, so they have been the ones who have selected the topics, materials, and activities according to the age range of their pupils.
2.1 Literature Review
There are several factorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocess. They are related to teachers, students, the curriculum, and the institution.
In Ecuador, for example, according to the information given by the Ministry of Education, only 8.2 % of the teachers have the B2 level of English, which qualifies them as independent users. Having this level of proficiency is the minimum necessary to work as an English Teacher. Most of them are only basic users of thelanguage. This clearly shows thatthe teachers are not able to provide high-quality Englishteaching. They show difficulty speaking English and of course are unable to teach English to others. On the other hand, not giving appropriate encouragement to learn to students, and the fact that curriculum is not made based on the students’
scholarships offered by other countries. However, it has been found that students graduate from highschools with poor English knowledge that limits their academic performance.
For the reasons mentioned above, this research titled “FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocess” had been carried out with three specific objectives. First, this research set out to determine the classrooms conditions in which English lessons take place. This objective was totally achieved, because it was found that students received classes in overcrowded classrooms where reduced space did not allowed teachers to change seating arrangement. In addition, there were not teaching resources such as posters, maps, pictures for helping teachers to make classes attractive and fun. The second objective, the identification of the characteristics of in-service English teachers, was successfully completed. Almost all of teachers were professionals with long teaching experience; a high number of teachers learned Englishin Ecuador;
That is why, the objectives of this research are determine the classrooms conditions in which English lessons take place, identify the characteristics of in-service English teachers, and determine teachers´ instructional competence.
Also, Englishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools can not be improved because the authorities and the teachers do not know which factors need to be developed to get the desired results. Factors such as students, teachers, and environment are principal elements to take into consideration in order to know better how theEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocess can be improved. In Ecuador, there has not been so much research attention toward factorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocess.
The aspects that were considered for a quantitative analyze are the information from the teacher’s questionnaires, the teacher’s interviews, the student’s questionnaires and the results from the observation sheets. The information from the teacher`s questionnaires was taken to describe the results of the research, and the information, from the other instruments, was used to interpret and contrast the results with an important argument of discussion. Upon observation of these incidents, this research evidences thatthefactors which most affecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools are factors concerning classrooms, because of the conditions in which they are kept, such as the class size, classroom space, seating arrangement, and teaching resources. Definitely they are not suitable for a correct Englishlanguageteaching-learningprocess.
DIRECTORA DEL TRABAJO DE FIN DE TITULACIÓN
C E R T I F I C A:
Que el presente trabajo, denominado: “ FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools” realizado por el profesional en formación: Jhon Edison Granda Miranda; cumple con los requisitos establecidos en las normas generales para la Graduación en la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, tanto en el aspecto de forma como de contenido, por lo cual me permito autorizar su presentación para los fines pertinentes.
This research work is based on the aim of analyzing thefactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocess. This study was carried out with the collaboration of five Publichighschoolsin Quito including students from eight grade to third year baccalaureate. Student groups were from 12 to 25 years old depending on the school‟s schedule. This research work followed a data gathering processthat included three elements. First, techniques such as surveys and note-taking were used.
Some studies concerning thefactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocess had been conducted, each of which had contributed to the
educational field. Kizildag (2009) investigated the problems and challenges encountered by Englishlanguage teachers teaching at public primary schoolsin Turkey such as having a poor institutional planning, instructional methods, and socio-cultural problems. This study concluded thatthe problems and challenges identified by the school teachers in Turkey were highly interrelated. It appears to be that one problem results into another through a chain reaction, giving as a result, ineffective teaching and learning activities. It is well documented that foreign language teachers start over from the beginning during each academic year. They re- teach what they had taught the previous year due to the limited use of languagein context and learners eventually forget what they learn.
The present study is about thefactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools. The purpose is to analyze which factors are affecting it. This research study was conducted in Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. Five publichighschools were selected for this study. The sample included 15 teachers and students between 8th to 3rd year of high school. The data was collected through questionnaires, interviews and observation sheets in order to obtain information related with theEnglishteaching-learningprocessinthe five publichighschools. The teachers’ questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively. The results of this analysis were corroborated with the information obtained from the observation sheet, interviews, and the students’ questionnaire used in this study. Finally, the results allowed identifying certain shortcomings intheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinthe
DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS
“Nosotras, Figueroa Fraga Liliana Alexandra y Páez Romero Verónica Gabriela, declaramos ser autoras del presente trabajo de titulación: “FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching- learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools” , de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo la Mgs Lida Mercedes Solano Jaramillo directora del presente trabajo; y eximimos expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certificamos que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de nuestra exclusiva responsabilidad.
DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS
“Yo Sosa García Ritha Maritza declaro ser autora del presente trabajo de fin de titulación: “FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorian prívate highschools”, de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Dra. Arias Córdoba María Olivia directora del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
the method is that learners do not develop communicative competence. In addition, Halliwell & Jones (1991) state that if students get translations during the whole time they would not be ready to deal with genuine interaction when they have to.
Furthermore, the teachers representing this section stated that they did not use English to teach their classes because their students belong to elementary level of comprehension of the target language. Halliwell & Jones (1991) claim that learners can understand the message even when they do not know the exact meaning of words and structures. At this point it can be evidenced that teachers are not using foreign languageteaching because of lack of knowledge. Inthe observed classes, 13.33% of individuals used Spanish to teach lessons. It was seen that teacher used their mother tongue to translate instructions and orders when it was necessary, which denotes students are not going to be ready to develop conversational settings using English, since the amount of input they are receiving is apparently not enough to develop full comprehension of the target language and improve their communicative competence.
researcher concluded that teacher ‟ s strategies and behavior are important in classroom management. In addition, factors related to school environment improve students‟
The third study was done by Ames & Archer (1998) to analyze how specific motivational processes were related to the mastery and performance goals inthe classroom. The participants of this research were 176 students from junior and highschools, 4 to 5 students were selected randomly to answer a questionnaire to know their opinion about the class received. The questionnaire contained questions that assessed students‟ p erception of the dimensions of classroom goal structure, learning ‟ st rategies, attitude toward the class, and perceived ability. Main results showed that each time students perceived that their class achieved thelearning objectives they respond positively reporting their learning strategies, they demonstrated also preference for challenging tasks and like the class. Researchers concluded that a classroom with goal orientation influence learning and motivate students to perform better achieving the goals of the class.
In conversations held after class with some of the teachers, when asked about the reasons why they did not use group work, they replied that as they work with numerous classes, students get easily disruptive when gathered in groups -this problem has been identified and acknowledged by Harmer (2007)-; they also said that it is sometimes very hard to monitor if the learners are practicing English or just talking in Spanish about other things. Additionally, a teacher alleged that most students do not like to challenge themselves, “If the activity demands a considerable deal of creative thinking they will moan and in some cases just will not do it, or leave all the work to the „good‟ ones.”
responsibility and a neglected-unproductive organization in rural schools has completely damaged the registration of students, which hardly enrolls 4 or 5.
The fact is thatteaching large classes can be a counterproductive challenge in terms of timing, resources, and planning, but not necessarily focus on the results. The scientific community has recently established that academic results of exhaustive class size research have sadly overwhelmed the educational society. According to Tyre, P. (2011) there is a substantial body of research to suggest that kids in small classes don’t necessarily learn more. Inthe range of things thatschools can do to improve outcomes for your child, reducing class size may rank a distant fourth behind solid teacher training, a clear and well-sequenced curriculum, and a staff that is well supported and regularly evaluated.
19 Kochlar (1985) explains that an exceptional improvement in today’s
education is the growing use of extra devices by which educators establish and connect accuracy concepts, and understanding. Among the many devices available for teachers, there are visual aids. The most common form is real objects, or better known as realia, pictures or photographs, maps, diagrams. Investigators suggested thatinteaching we ought to appeal to the mind generally through the visual and hearing sense organs, because researchers believe that possibly the 85 percent of learning is captivated by these senses. But not all publicschools are privileged to have access to these devices. This may vary according to the institution, location and perhaps even the quantity and type of resources available to teacher. It has been point out thatin some poor areas, teachers have to improvise and create their own home made resources in order to continue teaching. And if the teacher’s budget is limited, he or she can always rely on tools, such as the dictionary which is a very accessible tool. The black board is an additional piece of equipment that teachers may use, even though they might feel that is standard piece of equipment, (Wood, 2011).
Content of a lesson is a very important factor to the success thatthe student is going to have. Not only does the educator have to make sure thatthe student
comprehends grammar, vocabulary, and so on. The educator also has to introduce real life content as this is done the pupil will obtain a wider range of knowledge from the new vocabulary that will he is going to be exposed to. As a result of this method the student will learn the new language through a wider point of view with the introduction to new contents that should be wisely chosen by the educator. When the subject that is being used in class is of real world content, the student is going to learn thelanguagein a more natural form. It is also ideal for the content to be of a topic that is not of their community or culture. This way, not only does the student learn the new language, but he is also being introduced to new topics inEnglish. All language lessons are always going to involve content. However, it is proven that people have higher probabilities of learning a language when they use to acquire new information. Likewise what was stated before, classes are normally prepared to obtain participation from all the students, and furthermore it would be great to use these activities with the content that will be studied. ( Brinton,2003; Marton,1988;
would help them to teach in a better way and to know whether all the students learned English effectively.
It is worth saying that Davies and Pearse (2000) state that it is difficult to get good results in large groups because of the amount of students. These authors also say that teachers cannot give students individual feedback. Relating Davies and Pearse‟s statement to the observed classes where there were about thirty-one to forty- five students, the teacher made a great effort to achieve good results and of course, they could not give the whole class feedback individually.
instead of speaking in front of the whole class, and teach students to help each other with their learning.
However, if teachers want these activities to work properly in their classrooms there are some guidelines they need to think about. For instance, it is important to make sure we give very clear instructions about the task to be performed so students know exactly what to do, it would be a good idea to write these instructions on the board. Besides, teachers should ask students to make positive noise only so that all the groups may work without distraction. Another consideration is time; students should know when to start and when to finish the activity. Furthermore, it is very recommendable for the teacher to be constantly moving around the classroom to check groups‟ work as well as to give timely feedback.
these variables are related to students ‟ achievement in an English-languageteaching context.
The instruments used in this study were a teacher reflectivity questionnaire, teacher sense of efficacy scale, Lowma n‟s two-dimensional teaching style scale, and the end-of-the-year achievement test. The first step was to get the students ‟ final English-language exam scores without including the class participation scores; the second step was to get the names of the students ‟ teachers, and then the teachers were contacted and asked to fill inthe instruments. Finally, the teachers ‟ scores were matched against their students ‟ f inal English scores, and the statistical procedures were run to interpret the results. To examine the hypothesis, and due to the fact thatthe study had three independent variables and one dependent variable, multiple regression analysis was used as the main statistical procedure.