In conversations with some of the teachers, they said that having too many students per class makes them uncomfortable as they have the feeling that no matter their efforts, they will never get everyone, not even most of them to learn enough. Educators also pointed out the fact that with large classes they need to talk louder more often, and that even though inthe classes observed the students showed a satisfactory behavior, as they felt a bit inhibited by an outsider‘s presence, it is usu ally a hard task to maintain discipline. Finally, others mentioned the difficulty in bringing extra material as their students are numerous and they must invest their own money if they want to do so.
This research was directed to analyze thefactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four publichighschools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
fin de titulación: “ FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianpublichighschools ” , de la Titulación de Licenciado Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Salcedo Viteri Karina Soledad director (a) del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
Nowadays, there are many benefits of using technology inthe classroom especially as students become increasingly digitally literate. This increasing focus on technology use in a classroom and the different ways that today learners communicate have impacted how computers and any other technological device are used inthe classroom in order to prepare students to meet the demands of the 21 st century. In fact, these technology tools have also been used to extend classroom communication outside the classroom. In others words, today with a single laptop, an android phone, a projector and an internet connection a teacher can make the class more enjoyable, save time and give students authentic and meaningful learning experiences. As a result of it, students gain an awareness of the importance and the value of communication.
In relation to this topic, Brown (2007) sustains that all kinds of observations conducts to a useful learning for teachers whether with objectives of training, of evaluation or when it is a pair observation. Teachers are starting to understand that upon being observed in its actions and educational performance by other people allows them to have a clearer vision. It permits them to improve its weaknesses and to promote its abilities for teaching. This benefit reaches also to the ones that carries out the observation because they can be seen reflected in others. It also helps to obtain ideas for their professional growth. The recommendable frequency would depend on the teachers’ need. It can be once a week to detect mistakes intheprocess
instead of the observer being a silent inquisitor, possibly creating anxiety and confusion. Richards & Farrel (2005) state that observation provides a great opportunity for inexperienced teachers to see how senior teachers conduct a lesson, as well the observed teachers can enrich their knowledge receiving some advice or suggestion of a different point of view about solving a particular situation or problem; therefore, it is a very positive experience for both sides, having the chance to interact and share new ideas, expertise and to discuss concerns and difficulties. It is also explained thatthe points an observer can study are the timing, activities, techniques, participation and language. Student’s Motivation
Sariçoban and Sakizli (2006) examined thefactors and solutions for successful classroom management. According to these authors , learners‟ characteristics, school environment and teachers‟ features are factorsthataffect classroom management. On one hand, learners‟ characteristics gui de class management. For instance, age, personality, attitude and motivation make the difference when teaching. Likewise, environment impacts theteachingprocess. Indeed, seating arrangement and class size enables the teacher to build a positive surrounding for stu dents‟ progress. On the other hand, social environment factors can influence effective learning. Moreover, teachers should prepare materials a ccording to their students‟ abilities.
Other types of learning styles are the ones mentioned by Vermunt (1996), namely cognitive processing, regulation of learning, affective processes, and learning orientations. Learners with cognitive processing styles find reading and re-reading a lot instructional materials the most important processing activities. For students with regulation of learning style, monitoring processes are formed from the difficulties they experience when learning. Learners with affective processes style, in turn, are afraid of not being capable of coping with their studies, dealing with them well, and learningthe instructional materials. On the other hand, students with learning orientations have doubts about their ability to achieve something successfully. To complement the types of learning styles briefly described above, it is worth saying that Clark (1968) mentions learning styles such as visual, aural, and physical. As it is known, visual learners are those who like to learn by retaining information through visual material, i.e., pictures. Aural students learn with the help of listening input such as audio dialogues, songs, etc. Physical learners love to get involved in doing things in order to learn actively.
It is necessary to mention that some studies about this specific topic had been conducted in many different countries: to mention a few of them, Saricoban & Sakizli (2006) discovered that Iranian Seminary students face some factorsthat constitute enormous barriers intheteaching-learningEnglishlanguageprocess. For example, they point out that teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures and disciplinarians. Tabatabei (2012) recognized three different aspects: The frequency of classes is high, there are more important subjects for students to study, some students do not have enough self-confidence, and there are difficulties in understanding when they listen to inEnglish. Finally, Dubin & Olshtain (2000) agree on the fact that creating materials is a highly specialized craft, one that seems to be perfected through immersion inthe activity itself.
Two different methods are exposed by Larsen-Freeman (2000) who argues that Task-Based LanguageTeaching is an approach that allows students learn through the interaction that students have when they are working in a task. When students have to solve a task they have to talk in order to understand the classmates and the activity, this facilitates language acquisition. In this approach the teacher has to be attentive that students have a feedback about their success in solving the task. Also, the author talks about Total Physical Response approach, this approach was created to reduce the stress that people feel when they learn a foreign language. In this approach the students just interact in a nonverbally form until they are ready to speak, the teacher uses a lot of imperatives to control de class. Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized for this approach.
Clearly, the results above demonstrate teachers’ feelings about one of the most important problems of public education in Ecuador. It was mentioned before that class size is considered by the interviewed teachers, as a common problem inteachingEnglish as a foreign languagein Ecuador. It was observed that interaction between teachers and students is greatly affected by the number of students inthe classroom, because it was difficult for the majority of teachers to speak and give instructions inEnglishin a crowded room where learners chat a lot and did not pay attention to the class. Teachers’ responses show th at they consider small classes with less than 25 students as an ideal setting for teachingEnglish. Inthat way, teachers would be able to organize students in groups to work in communicative activities, and students would have more and better opportunities to interact with their teachers without the constant interruption of their peers. Besides, teachers would pronounce English better, because they would not need to speak loud, and students would listen appropriately.
learning needs including their attitudes towards student-centered and traditional teaching approaches, culture learningin EFL program, attitudes towards authority in class, the main problems encountered inthe course of their learningEnglish, and their practice of languagelearning strategies, using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. In this empirical study, the subjects consisted of 210 English-major students from a multi- faculty university in North China. The questionnaire data were gathered inthe last twenty minutes of the students' class time, via prior agreement with the teachers. The selection of student informants was completely at random with a view of accessing a large number of students from different levels. The students in this investigation show, on the whole, more favorable attitudes towards communicative classroom activities than non-communicative ones. In addition, the findings of this research will provide Chinese EFL teachers with insightful information on learners' learning needs as an input to syllabus and materials planning, to lesson planning and classroom instruction practice. The study demonstrates the importance of a good understanding of learner variables in TEFL programs at university level in China.
Several pedagogical implications for languageteaching can be gathered from this research. Firstly, the great variety of mechanisms and strategies mentioned by the learners in this study give the researcher insights into the difficulties students come across when learning a foreign language, i.e. keeping new words in memory and strong need for language practice. Secondly, everything seems to indicate that this factor plays a central role inthelearning of a foreign language and, therefore, teachers should have a full understanding of the different strategies used by their students for learning it as this will shed light on important areas of their teaching. Thirdly, it is reasonable to thi nk that students‟ autonomy and self-direction should be promoted if teachers make them reflect upon their learning and train them inlearning how to learn.
First of all, the board: which is the most versatile piece of teaching equipment use to provide a motivational focal point during whole-class activities. Second, cards (often called flashcards) they are smallish pieces of cardboard which teachers can hold up for their students to see; they can be applied with either pictures or words for cue-response work or as aids in pair and group work. Third, the cassette recorder is one of thelanguage teacher‟s most useful tools and they are usually provided as part of the EFL materials of course books. Next, the overhead projector is an extremaly useful equipement since they allow teachers to prepare visual or demonstration material. Last, and perhaps the most useful piece of „equipment‟ a student can ever own or use is a good dictionary.
Igualmente mediante el Acuerdo Ministerial Nº 2511 y Resolución Nº 2543, la nueva serie de textos para los estudiantes Our World Through English, con sus respectivas guías didácticas para el profesor, producida por el Proyecto CRADLE en la División Nacional de Idiomas Extranjeros del Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, se constituye en el único material didáctico autorizado para la implementación del nuevo currículo. La implementación a nivel nacional se inició en octubre de 1993 en el Régimen Sierra y Oriente, y en mayo de 1994 en el Régimen Costa y se desarrolló progresivamente, según el cronograma expuesto en el párrafo anterior. El uso del material es obligatorio para los estudiantes y profesores de Inglés de los colegios fiscales y fiscomisionales del país.
On the other hand, Gower, Phillips & Walters (1995) state that, the resources available for teachers can vary according to theteaching institutions. For instance, some resources described by these authors include the board and the cork-board to display information on walls. Other materials are visual materials such pictures, photographs, or overhead projectors. There are also worksheets and work-cards photocopied or produced as cue cards or role cards; CD players; videos to add variety and develop listening skills; and authentic materials as newspapers, magazines, poems, songs and menus.
interviewed teachers have an English bachelor ‟ s degree; 40% of the teachers have an English master degree; and 7% of the teachers have other type of degree such as doctor or engineer. During the interview, the group of teachers with an English bachelor ‟s degree explained that they studied English for an average of six years at different language institutes inthe place they live. The time while teachers have been teachingEnglish varies according to the years of experience, some of them have been working inthe field during 10 year; others for 20 years; and others for 6 years. Those teachers expressed thatthe easies skill to teach is reading. It was not possible to continue gathering information about other aspects such as advantages or disadvantages of teachingEnglishin Ecuador or the benefits of staying more time in an educational institution due to the fact that an important proportion of teachers has a A2 level and they were not able to give accurate answers inthe interview.
There is not such a thing as the perfect class size nor is there agreement about how much beneficial class size reduction is, if it really boosts performance or not, as well as to what kind of learners is supposed to be the most benefited by smaller classes. For instance, according to Hanushek (1999), class size is unrelated to better academic achievement; whereas Mosteller (1995) in his so called Tenesse study claim that a reduced class size does contribute to better learning and that those benefits persist over time. Yet as stated by Blatchford (2003) the benefits of smaller class size is more experienced by students with lower achievement than those with higher achievement. It is important to be cautious as this literature describes general instruction, not with a focus on foreign or second languageteaching and learning.
can see, most public school teachers have a bachelor teaching degree, however, this does not mean they have a good English level or that their knowledge about teaching is wide. During the observed classes, a low English level and a poor pronunciation was evidenced. Teachers speak English with a strong accent and with lots of hesitation. Most teachers made mistakes such as wrong grammar structures and inappropriate tenses. A lack of vocabulary was also evidenced as they repeated the same words over and over while teaching. The question is how a person with a degree inEnglishteaching has such a low level and how can they be teachingEnglish. Well, it is because university English teachers also have a very low level and consequently, theEnglishteaching-learningprocess is being affected by this low teacher quality since, as we know, learners pick up languages as they are taught and if a teacher teaches wrong the student learns wrong. Plus, since most teachers were taught the same way inthe university, they all have about the same English level. Therefore, there are not many options to choose from and those teachers were and are being hired.
teaching and large classes. An advantage of one-to-one teaching is that it allows the teacher to focus on one person and the student has the opportunity to take advantage of this personalized teaching. Like a disadvantage, this type of teaching can become boring and tired because the dynamic of a large class is missing. On the other hand, large classes present good challenges because if it is true that giving personal attention to each student is more difficult, at the same time, a larger number of students allows better interaction and there would not be boredom. However, the real success of the classroom does not depend of its size; otherwise, it depends on the ability of the teacher to manage this challenge and to avoid a disaster (Harmer 2007, p. 122-127).