Then fifteen observations, fifteen surveys, and fifteen interviews were carried out too. Thus, to perform all these activities, official requesting authorizations were needed to the principals and to the teachers of each of the educational institutions. All these documents were provided by the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja. After that, the decision to look for educational institutions to allow me to do this research was taken. The support of some teachers and the indisposition of others were obtained during the observations of their classes of theEnglishlanguage; however, the research work had been started. Some teachers were surveyed by email, because they had told me they had not had time to answer the questions in classes. The students had helped me with the research work and they had participated actively inthe classes and inthe interviews. Finally, the data was collected and the statistical graphs were done. Parallel to these activities the theoretical framework had begun. With the data that was obtained, the analysis, interpretation, and discussion had begun. The activity had proved to be somewhat difficult due to the complexity of the results.
The main objective of this project is to determine the principal “FactorsthatinfluencetheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianprivatehighschools” in order to improve theEnglish education quality in Ecuador. The study tends to achieve B2 teachers English level for the purpose of upgrading their ability inteachingEnglish. The Ministry of Education will offer training programs for teachers who have not reached the standards, which are needed to teach English successfully. It means a B2 level, according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (SENESCYT, 2012), which includes six levels of proficiency which range from A1 to C2. A1 and A2 levels correspond to Basic Englishlanguage level users, who are capable to narrate their personal experiences using basic vocabulary and simple tenses. Besides they can interact in a simple way.
Lightbrown and Spada (2006) summarize the term learning : “it has been used to describe an individual’s natural, habitual, a nd preferred way of absorbing, processing and retaining new information and skills ” (p.59). One of the most popular learning styles is the “kinesthetic” which refers to learning through action. In order to take into account the different learning styles teachers must be flexible and Coleman (2005) consider this by saying that evidence shows that individuals perceive, analyze, organize, and recall information in different and stable ways. They go on and state that conflicting theoretical frameworks and classifications make applying the information practically difficult. As a result of these difficulties, teachers must be aware of the different students learning styles and be flexible inthe classroom in order to accommodate these different learning styles. Once the students’ learning style; visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic are identified then the teacher can choose the best activities for their lessons.
the teachers handled this trouble by being quiet and then by raising a little bit their voice until they got the attention of their students to continue with the EFL lessons. In relation to timing, 22% of the teachers considered the time for each activity inthe class because they let the students know the time they had to complete a task. It means thatinthe observed classes, timing was determined by the activities done because the teachers let the students know how long a task was going to take. An important point to note about timing is that Maxom (2009) mentions that it is necessary both to tell the students how long they have for a particular activity and to let them know before the time is up . What this author mentions about this point was considered inthe observed classes because the teachers told the students the time allotted for an activity and let them know when the time was going to be up.
Additionally, Richards & Rodger (2001) state that CLT is based on a group of significant tasks. In this method the students participate in an environment of collaboration and exchanging of information where the teacher guides this activity but it results a bit difficult for the students with lack of grammar knowledge. Kiymazarslan (1995) and Richards & Rodgers (2001) state thatthe natural approach is based on natural principles for language acquisition through three stages: Pre-production stage, early production stage, and the speech emergent phase. NA focuses on the exposure or input instead of practice. This method uses thelanguagein communicative situations without the use of native language. Moreover, the students are not asked to talk until they are ready to do it but they receive and perform different commands.
On the other hand, Harmer, J. (1998) mentioned that there are many forms of arranging the class, these are: circles, separate tables, orderly row, and groupings. The first, circles, a circle of desks puts every student inthe front row. Second, orderly row imply teachers working with the whole class. Some activities are especially designed to this kind of organization: explaining a grammar point, watching a video, using the board, demonstrating text organization on an overhead transparency which shows a paragraph, for example. It is also useful when students are involved in certain kinds of language practice. If all the students are focused on a task, the whole class gets the same messages. Third, grouping mean putting desks in small groups so that students face each other. This is ideal for group activities. Groups can be dynamic, changing based on the activity, or constant. Form groups carefully by mixing students with differing strengths and weaknesses, genders and skill levels. It is occasionally beneficial to form skill groups with students of similar abilities.
teachers should note thatthe important thing in utilizing instructional materials is not how many of them are utilized in a lesson but how well they are arranged to be able to bring about better learning effectively. There are also other essential resources for the continued success of students which can arouse the students‟ interest during the class. Teachers can use, for example, visual aids, such as whiteboards or chalkboards, charts, maps, flash cards, and calendars. Presentation tools such as bulletin boards, audiovisual equipment, and overhead projectors are also utilized frequently along with multimedia displays and computers which have become popular teaching aids, but overhead projectors still have a place inthe classroom.
As it is illustrated inthe graph above, the 93% of the sample (fourteen teachers) use whole-group activities to teach their lessons in large classes. Harmer (1998) mentions that it is much easier for students to share an emotion such as happiness or amusement in a whole- class setting. Inthe same way, teachers think that students can become more productive and get easily involved intheteachingprocess if they work in groups; since sharing their own ideas in a group can help them to come up with their own conclusions. Likewise, students claimed that whole group activities allow them to interact with their classmates and to obtain productive lessons because the activities are enjoyable and varied; they like to participate inthe classroom and they also enjoy developing the activities proposed by the teacher.
objectives: to know what behavior the students had when receiving theteaching and to know what strategies the teacher used to control that classroom discipline. It was also necessary to count on some techniques and instruments. First, it was used the observation instrument in which researcher could see how students behaved with teacher's explanations. Second, through an interview, he could know the teacher's opinion about learners' discipline. At the end, the results were thatthe forty students showed a clear misbehavior that included: interruption to teacher, not participating, non interest of teaching material, cheating, slowness or not completing activities, laughing during the class, using the mobile phone, eating inthe classroom, and issuing annoying voices. Under these circumstances, teacher tried to control them by speaking to aloud; however this did not happen so. In conclusion, the students' misbehavior was evident. This kind the situations is seen in those new teachers with low or without any experience. Researcher recommended to try to look for alternative strategies for getting a good teaching.
It could be said that nowadays teaching is focused on the communication and interaction as a main activity inthelearningprocess and in its later phase, it appears the grammatical rules and translation exercises. First listening and speaking and then reading and writing take place. It is easy to understand this choice because young students prefer to interact with each other through activities such as games and conversations even though some of them are not prepared to hold a conversation. Both enthusiasm and energy of students should be used by teachers to connect them with the text to teach on any given day.
Feedback is often given soon after the teacher finishes their class. It can be oral or written, individual or a form of a group discussion. It is used to recognize the students’ strengths and weakness and is open to suggestions for any improvement. Most teachers write down points that they want to refer to later; some like to use charts or other forms of categorization to help them do this. For example, the teacher should give an assessment of an activity, ask the students to explain what they found easiest or most difficult, or what they can remember about the problem and then whether they can put it right. Teachers can also write correct and incorrect words, phrases or sentences on the board and ask the students to decide which is which.
“Yo, Burbano Intriago Yissel Elizabeth declaro ser autor(a) del presente trabajo de fin de titulación “Factorsthatinfluencethe En glish languageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorianprivatehighschools” de la Titulación de Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Mgs Eva Ulehlova directora del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
Finally, Richards and Rodgers (2005, p. 219, 220) describe the Content-Based Instruction as an approach “in which teaching is organized around the contents or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syll abus.” The authors make allusion to a statement given by Krahnke (1987: 65) who points that CBI presents unlimited occasions for teachers coordinate the interests and needs of students with interesting and meaningful contents; also CBI gives practical advantages for teachers and course designers. Therefore, the authors mention to Brinton (1989:2) who observes that CBI uses activities in class that are equipped to stimulate students to think and learn through the objective language, moreover the learners have to study and learn several skills which prepare them for academic activities.
The observed classes were exactly aiming to follow the course book, filling the gaps inthe workbook, reading aloud the answers and writing on the board some missing words. Real communication did not take place at all. When a change from the old school of teaching grammatical structures to an interactive process of communication came about, and pertinent activities were developed in order to accomplish it, as stated by Richards and Rodgers (2001), communication was the principal goal of this approach; nevertheless, the interviewed teachers were not aiming to fulfill this need completely. The classes were not interactive and the teachers hardly procured all o f the students’ participation ; the main effort was to fulfill the lesson plan, which in turn, did not contemplate interaction. Communication took place on the way; consequently, the teacher’s answers did not correspond to the class development.
Experience shows us that sometimes the textbook is not enough to fulfill students’ needs in specific areas, so teachers have access to a wide variety of extra material that they can use in their classes daily. In some cases this supplementary material comes along with the text book, like flashcards, posters and, cut outs (Spratt, Pulverness & Williams 2005). Good teachers should be aware that supplementary materials are not always going to be available, so they should take full advantage of the materials at hand. Gower, Phillips & Walters (1995) comment that, “It is unusual to find classrooms without a board or something similar where teachers can write, draw, or simply make graphics to explain something during the lesson.” It is essential, then, to obtain the maximum effect of it. Teachers should start the class with a clean board and try to keep it as clear,
There is a variety of teaching resources that help teachers to accomplish their goals. Davies & Pearse (2011) describe some of them such as the board, which is the most universal and basic piece of classroom equipment, however, teacher´s writing on the board should be clear, and the use of the board organized; wall-charts and cue- cards can be made at home using pictures cut out of magazines and other sources. Wall-charts can consist of scenes, or separate but related pictures. They can be used for work on new language items, and for conversation or guided composition work; realia should be not restricted to such things as pens and books. The learner´s own possessions can often be used, as well as things you take to class specially; audio- cassettes can bring realistic or authentic listening material into the classroom. These may include songs, which most learners like; the use of video will depend on some extent on whether you have it permanently available in your classroom or can use it only occasionally. In either case, teacher should consider carefully what objectives are in using it, and not use it because it is available.
The teacher’s role inthe classroom is ch anging. Traditional methods of instruction such as the chalk and talk are no longer relevant or engaging for twenty first century learners. The transition of pedagogy is happening fast and teachers need to be accomplished Information and Communication Technology (ICT) users, modelers and instructors. Teachers need to speak thelanguage of their learners and model to them using natural, safe and ethical means and interactions. Teachers should use a good pedagogy. The Online Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) provides a definition of pedagogy: “the study of teaching methods, including the aims of education and the ways in which such goals may be achieved. ” This definition describes how we need to approach teaching ICTs and how learners learn them.
Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) claim that when teachers give instructions it is crucial that instructions are clear. In order for this to happen there are two general rules for giving instructions. They must be kept as simple as possible, and they must be logical. The authors also suggest that some questions teachers should ask themselves before giving instructions include: What is the important information I am trying to convey? What must the students know if they are to complete this activity successfully? Once given the instructions it is important to make sure the students have understood. This can be done by asking a student to explain the activity or getting someone to show the other people inthe class how the exercise works.
The second study was carried out by Khamkhien (2010) to determine how gender, motivation, and experience inEnglishlearning affect Vietnamese and Thai students’ languagelearning. To gather the necessary data, participants were evaluated with a SILL test designed by Oxford and they also answered some questionnaires in order to know their English background. The results showed that motivation was a significant factor that influenced students’ choice of learning strategies. Inthe same way, female students reported to have better strategies than males. Finally, Vietnamese students performed better in communicative strategies than Thai learners because they were taught to use Communicative Languageteaching. In conclusion, the researchers considered that motivation was the most important factor affecting students’ choices inlanguagelearning. Therefore, the i nvestigators recommended teachers to take into account students’ motivation in order to design learning tasks.
On the other hand, in other observed classes, the teachers taught their classes just according to the contents of the course book, but without preparing extra activities for them. Among this group of teachers, it was observed that none of them had a written lesson plans. However, when they were surveyed about their lesson plans, all of them answered that they had prepared them in advance. Thus, it is important, as Fink (2005) states, the use of lesson plans. This author defines them as “the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time.”