One ofthe most important facets intheteaching is assessment (Hannan & Silver, 2005). Contreras proposes a very complete definition to this term: Assessment is a process that involves obtaining reliable information concerning the students’ commands (objectives, knowledge, aptitudes, skills, behaviors, etc.), establishing judgments of value (acceptable, suitable, good, good enough, etc.) and making decisions (to accept, to pass, to recommend, to promote, to release, to recognize, etc.) (Contreras, 2004).
This chart shows that the majority of students (32.2%) partially agree when they were asked if the atmosphere ofthe class is stressful; meanwhile, 18.07% of them disagree with this item. Additionally, 23.16% totally agree and 26.55% partially agree. It indicates that students feel different levels of stress. From the point of view of Blazer (2010), students are under the pressure from their teachers, their parents, admissions counselors to maintain high grade point average. Besides, they participate in a variety of extracurricular activities and so on. This author also asserts that “studies have recently called attention to high levels of student stress in our schools. Surveys have found that most students identify academic pressure as the main reason for their stress. Consequently, researchers have chronicled increases in cheating, sleepless nights, depression, drug use, and self-mutilation. While it has long been assumed that struggling students are most prone to academic stress, recent studies indicate that high achievers are especially vulnerable to school-related stress” (Blazer 2010, p.13).
The second statement of this table refers to students who feel inhibited when speaking in front ofthe class. Thehigher point in this question is 32% for students who agree with this statement, then are students who answered “partially agree” 30%, this group is followed by students who totally agree 22%, and finally those who disagree 20%. These responses show another negative impact of large classes, in this case affecting speaking skill. There may be many reasons for students to feel uncomfortable in class; however, Harfitt (2012) found in his study that students in large classes felt nervous when they had to speak in front of their peers because they did not know or did not trust in all of them. In contrast, in smaller classes, students seemed to appreciate the support from each other, producing a sense of community in class.
Theprocessof communicative language teaching is an attempt to show some theoretical issues teachers should consider in large classes, where they have the commitment to language teaching. Many things have been said about language teaching languages; Finocchiaro (1983 ) contrasts the main sign ofthe Audiolingual method is based on the demand for memorizing dialogues structures , without explaining the grammatical structure and the communicative approach that gives importance to contextualization in interactive dialogues, which allow you to learn to develop the student's ability to use the linguistic system effectively and appropriately. Teachers help learners in any way, so that they motivate them to work with the language, so the language is used by the individual through daily experiences. Apart from being an interesting example, the communicative approach to teaching has stacked the cards in their favor, communication between previous approaches and traditions in language teaching. The wide acceptance ofthe communicative approach and relatively variously interpreted and applied that can be attributed to the fact that practitioners of different educational traditions can be identified with it, and therefore they can interpret different ways.
The need to carry out this research is to observe theinfluenceof motivation intheteaching- learningprocessofthe development of English language skills through the use of technological tools, which means improving the level of access to information for students through analysis and contextualization, for their better educational performance, allows to analyze whether with the use of these technological means students improve their motivation to learn English. As stated by Gutter and Muñoz (2000: 86), it is not limited to a positive motivation ofthe child within the school environment, but can have a greater impact, the development of favourable attitudes towards the use of language, a perception of language as 'not difficult' and a greater confidence in personal linguistic power and a greater interest in languages.
Words were taught in an isolated way. Rules were taught on inappropriate settings. This means that students had little or no chance to speak resulting in an absolute absence of pronunciation teaching. Similarly, sentence word order, neither words structure do not produce communicative pieces of language , followed by the teacher’s explana tion given inthe mother language. Consequently, the drawback of this method lies in that it did not provide learners with communicative skills and interaction. Freeman (2000) defines this method as one ofthe most classical ones that intended to get a double purpose. First, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language through the structure ofthe target language; second, it was recognized that the students would never use the target language, but the mental exercise ofthe learner. Finally, it was thought that the foreign language learning would help students grow intellectually by enhancing their cultural background.
Many theoretical models have come about because of research into information technologies’ adoption (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003). As Bagozzi, Davis, and Warshaw (1992) note, TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) is an information systems theory that is widely used for studies into how users (faculty members in this case) adopt and use a particular technology (Wikipedia). And as this paper explores the factors that influencetheteaching use of Wikipedia inHigherEducation, we use TAM in our analysis as we consider Wikipedia to be a technological platform for knowledge creation and sharing. We are keen to study the relationship (from a utilitarian perspective) between Wikipedia’s perceived ease of use and Wikipedia’s perceived usefulness. This is both with respect to: (a) the behavioral intention to use it, and, by extension (b) the behavior of actual Wikipedia use.
processes and political, teaching and administrative effects. Nevertheless they introduce four interesting topics: growth inHigherEducation to provide mass HE, fast technological changes, IT skills of students and academic staff, change in students’ lifestyles and the international HE market. All of them are in themselves a “major theme” that could be the objective of an essay. Thus, we can say that the wide-ranging approach ofthe book produces a very interesting debate on the many themes that it involves and the volume of cited references but not a very in-depth ofthe issues tackled.
Lightbrown and Spada (2006) summarize the term learning : “it has been used to describe an individual’s natural, habitual, a nd preferred way of absorbing, processing and retaining new information and skills ” (p.59). One ofthe most popular learning styles is the “kinesthetic” which refers to learning through action. In order to take into account the different learning styles teachers must be flexible and Coleman (2005) consider this by saying that evidence shows that individuals perceive, analyze, organize, and recall information in different and stable ways. They go on and state that conflicting theoretical frameworks and classifications make applying the information practically difficult. As a result of these difficulties, teachers must be aware ofthe different students learning styles and be flexible inthe classroom in order to accommodate these different learning styles. Once the students’ learning style; visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic are identified then the teacher can choose the best activities for their lessons.
From the study, 9 teachers agreed that a class with10 to 15 students is appropriate for effective English teaching. This number represents 60 % ofthe total. Then, 5 teachers said a classroom with 16 to 25 students is appropriate; this figure accounts for the 33 % ofthe total. After that, 1 teacher said that the appropriate number of students is from26 to 30 representing 7 % ofthe total. There was no teacher claiming more than 31 students is acceptable to have a successful English lesson. Woodward (2011), establishes that large classrooms pose several problems like the noise, and too many students restricted to a small area as well as not having enough time to provide them with correct feedback assessment or any individual attention. These are good reasons to consider why most observed teachers agreed on having fewer than 16 students in a classroom. Nevertheless, there is a reasonably large group ofthe observed teachers who claim a larger number is appropriate instead. The reason is because although the number is high, there are ways to counter-
Despite the fact that some methodologies suggest the translation as a strategy to teach something students find difficult to understand, teachers must speak most ofthe time English. If students don`t understand a word they must find the way to teach them, maybe using pictures, or mime, or real objects, or an English-English dictionary, but never translating, in this way students learn the language in a better way. As Brown (2000) reports about the Total Physical Response method, children acquire their mother tongue listening to the people around them and speaking when ready, that is why students should be taught inthe target language.
The response of students to this individual work varies a lot one another, some of them seem to be very involved inthe activities given by the teacher but it seems most ofthe students lose interest in a determined moment. This is evidence that it is necessary that teachers have a variety of activities and resources in class in order to keep students ’ interest and motivation. Even though teachers are very concerned about discipline and assessment which is why they say to prefer individual activities instead of group activities, they should consider that both provide students great opportunities to learn when managed correctly.
Kral (1994) argues that time is very important for our lives but it is really important inside the classroom, because inthe classroom we have different types of students and the different way how they apply the knowledge and time has an important role. Teachers must keep in mind the algorithm to be used, it means explain students the steps to follow inthe class including the time assigned for each activity, also the class must include a warm-up, introduction to the topic, and all the steps considered in a lesson plan; besides this, students must have the time to copy the important information from the board at the end ofthe lesson, but ¨slower students¨ must have more time to copy the necessary information.
Online threaded discussions are used within theteaching and learningprocess to support students‟ interactions and knowledge sharing in some Cuban highereducation settings, especially in Information Sciences and related fields. It can support the instructional activities such as lectures, workshops and online learning (Borges-Frias, 2009; García-Garay, 2005; Rodríguez-Torres & Anta- Vega, 2006). Although quite a lot of studies have recognized the effectiveness of OTD inteaching and learning, its applications inthe Cuban highereducation context are not yet widely spread. This is on the one hand related to teachers‟ familiarity with traditional, face-to-face teaching and monitoring students‟ learning processes, and on the other hand related to the limited internet access among Cuban universities. In order to overcome the hurdle of limited internet access, many universities use intranet to host social software applications and online tools including OTD tools in Cuban universities.
On the other hand, Ferlazzo & Sypnieski (2012) insist that students from different levels of proficiency can be an advantage for working in class. The authors believe that students of a low level of English will feel obligated to catch up to the others ofhigher levels which can result in quicker learning. The authors mentioned above, say that when working in activities, teachers can make groups of students from high and low levels to encourage interaction. Besides these students can support each other in different skills, for example, one could be better at reading and another at writing in English. Consequently, teachers can work effectively with students from different levels of proficiency.
Gower, Phillips, and Walters (2005) state that short instructions are entirely appropriate to this situation where the students accept their authority. Also, they usually realize that a firm directive manner is necessary in order to make a good language practice and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Sometimes students need a little time before they get going while others get on with the task immediately. By providing ongoing feedback you can help your students evaluate their achievement and progress. Feedback can take a number of forms: giving praise and
Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu (2006) based their study on three questions (a) Do secondary school teachers use instructional resources frequently inteaching English language? (b) Do the English Language teachers use appropriate methods inteaching English Language frequently? (c) Do secondary school students in Nigeria learn English language in an environment conducive to learning? The main instruments used for this study were a questionnaire and observation schedules. The researchers designed the questionnaire by generating a list of items, which solicited students' responses on teaching strategies, instructional resources/media used by the teachers and theteaching-learning environment. The specifications for each ofthe two data collection instruments used inthe study were as follows: (a) Questionnaire: This instrument had four sections dealing with demographic. (b) Observation: Research assistants were trained to observe each classroom and some classroom proceedings during administration ofthe questionnaire noting the features or characteristics ofthelearning environment. Based on their results they claimed that the public secondary schools in Nigeria were far behind time in offering multiple pathways to theteaching and learning English as a second language. Public secondary schools in Nigeria should be provided with adequate and a variety of instructional media, technologies such as audio and video recordings, language laboratories and computers. These instructional media can be more effective teaching tools for English Language lessons as they offer an authentic learning experience when interwoven with existing curriculum.
As the large-class subject matter is very wide, some further studies have been examined with the idea of establishing some sort of comparison. The first study is related to one investigation done at the An-Najah National University in Nablus, Palestine. The purpose ofthe research was to discover the effects of large class on EFL students and the instructional, social, and psychological implications large classes have on their attitudes. There were also questions aimed to consider other variables such as gender, level of study, college and placement exam marks. The population of this study consisted of 1.200 students and the random sample was composed of 230 male and female students. The results ofthe different domains show that the students’ responses