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Language Learning Strategies for Digital Classrooms

Language Learning Strategies for Digital Classrooms

How to ma ke language learning more effective in a digita l classroom? A functional strategy to language learning in a digital classroom does not advocate teaching language by providing fixed recipes for language activities. Rather it is concerned with giving instruction about the development of effect ive language resources for particula r purposes, and giving it at the point of need within the context of real, mean ingful language use. Because in this way, students are able to adjust and modify their performance to better meet contextual de mands and varying situations and eventually improve their learning standard. According to Unsworth (1993, p.351), what can be considered as knowledge and understanding in classrooms is ma inly determined by the range of resources that are available to students, the status which is assigned to these resources in classrooms, and the kinds of learning activ ities undertaken in connection between students and resources. Taking teaching narrative language in a lowe r p rimary c lassroom as an e xa mple , fairytales can be the most interesting and stimulating content. Teachers are able to find a wide range of resources about fairytales fro m d iffe rent media. In the classroom, students can watch a video clip related to the ma in the me and note down some details for the flowchart
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Iranian EFL Learners’ Perception of Autonomous Language Learning in Language Classrooms

Iranian EFL Learners’ Perception of Autonomous Language Learning in Language Classrooms

There is a growing body of research on the development of autonomy and autonomous language learning in EFL contexts. Autonomous learners should possess a range of abilities and capabilities, according to Benson (2010) “autonomy is a complex construct” (p. 78). He also added “when we judge intuitively that students are either more or less autonomous, what we appear to be doing is observing certain behaviors and associ- ating them with broader construct of autonomy” (p. 78) some of these observable behaviors or variables are strategies, especially metacognitive strategies which show the learners’ ability of reflection, planning, and monitoring. Based on the idea of Cotterall (1995), metacognitive strat- egy is one of the aspects of learners’ readiness for autonomy and as Little (1999, p. 23) said “strategic control of language learning and language use” is one of the crucial aspects of autonomy. Oxford (2008) also ar- gued that learners who are more active in the language learning process are those who employed more strategies. As literature suggests before any intervention and fostering autonomy there is a need for research on learners’ perceptions towards autonomous language learning.
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Grouping Strategies and Writing Achievement in Cooperative Learning

Grouping Strategies and Writing Achievement in Cooperative Learning

Along with a growing reliance on cooperative learning in language classrooms, a key question is how effective different grouping strategies (i.e. homogeneous and heterogeneous) are. Such an issue seems innovative when considering the long-accepted tradition of heterogeneous grouping of learners in cooperative activities. To reach this aim, present study set out to investigate the effect of grouping in terms of language ability and gender of the Iranian EFL learners on their written performance. Two elementary-level male and two elementary-level female intact classes were selected and randomly assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous groups. The treatment sessions lasted 9 weeks of instruction with a special emphasis on developing the skill of writing. Learners were pre- tested and post-tested through a free writing measure. Analyses of variances indicated that learners in homogeneous groups outperformed those in heterogeneous ones, though it did not reach any significance level. Language ability of the learners did not make any difference and only the gender made a significant difference between the groups. A more focused analysis of the five components of writing (i.e. content, organization, grammar, mechanics and vocabulary) revealed the same pattern as that of the learners' whole composition in the two grouping formats. The obtained results were a confirmation of a new strand of research which has questioned the long-dominant heterogeneous grouping in cooperative learning settings to design groups in a way that promotes learners' achievement to the extent possible.
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Assessment for/as Learning in Hong Kong English Language Classrooms: A Review

Assessment for/as Learning in Hong Kong English Language Classrooms: A Review

Having set personal learning goals, students carrying out AaL ought to monitor their own learning progress, which demands a high degree of learner autonomy and active engagement. Autonomous learners monitor their learning progress regularly by keeping a record of their learning, reviewing previous learning with respect to learning goals set, and making sound decisions about subsequent learning (Lee, 2016). For instance, vocabulary notebooks (see Appendix 2 for a sample entry), which involve a substantial amount of lexical information organized systematically by diverse means, can be utilized as tools for students to record lexical items learnt through daily encounters and monitor breadth as well as depth of their vocabulary learning (Nation, 2013). Another instance of self-monitoring in AaL is the usage of listening logs as records of extensive listening. Attributed to compression of time and space along with globalization, a multiplicity of online resources such as ELT podcasts, which are online audio or video programs updated at regular intervals and tailor-made for ESL and EFL learners, have become easily accessible to students and are desirable extensive listening materials (Bauman, 1998; Sze, 2006). Enabling students to make a record of personal responses to each listening material and ask metacognitive questions regarding their listening experience such as selection of listening materials, listening strategies, and difficulties encountered, listening logs monitor students’ development of listening skills, assisting them in evaluating each listening experience and planning their future learning (Lee, 2016). The aforementioned self-monitoring activities doubtlessly occur after class, yet English teachers also ought to take on an active role in monitoring students’ self-monitoring by checking their learning records on a regular basis in a bid to ensure that students, particularly less motivated ones, are working towards their learning goals. That said, students’ autonomy and active engagement are most heavily stressed by self-monitoring in AaL.
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EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning

EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning

In conclusion, this quantitative study set out to answer questions concerning Saudi students’ EFL writing strategies in Juabil Industrail College. The above findings of the participants’ writing strategies confirm the belief (Reid, 2001, p. 29) that writing cannot and should not be isolated as either process or product activity. Writing “fundamentally depends on writers’ purposeful interactions with print, with fellow readers and writers, and with literate communities of practice” (Ferris & Hedgcock, 2005, p. 31). Reid (2001) said that the dichotomy between ‘process’ and ‘product’ in terms of instruction is false. Similarly, this article confirms that this dichotomy is false in terms of learners’ writing strategies. However, by establishing a ‘process-product’ catalogue of writing strategies and understanding general tendencies, researchers can compare findings in different contexts, teachers can diagnose learners’ needs for a particular type of strategy instruction and establish priorities among them, and students can raise their strategy-use awareness (Petric & Czarl, 2003). When EFL college writers tend to diversify the type of writing strategies they use, we could argue that the nature of EFL writing might be more dynamic, complex and probably more sophisticated. As a result, the perspective taken from this study is that teachers should try and adopt a diverse view of EFL writing instruction and allow for constant access to different types of writing strategies. A number of studies had previously reported both reciprocal and diverse relations between teacher teaching approaches and student learning approaches (Martin & Ramsden, 1998; Marton & Booth, 1997; Patrick, 1992; Trigwell, Prosser & Waterhouse, 1999). However, the question that is yet untouched in this study is: What is the nature of correlation between the instructional type of students’ writing strategies and the type of writing instruction adopted by their teachers? In other words, can students’ writing strategies reflect the knowledge accessed and learned during writing classrooms? For future research, therefore, researchers are recommended to investigate whether EFL writing strategies can or cannot be self-instructed.
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Language learning strategies in independent language learning: an overview

Language learning strategies in independent language learning: an overview

metacognitive knowledge regarding comprehension strategies. The form that the advice takes is an interesting feature of the study. Pujola observes that, based on experience, learners pay more attention to tutors’ advice in class rather than advice in handbooks or texts, so in ImPRESSions a video format was chosen. Two experienced teachers gave unscripted responses to such questions for reading as: ‘What can I do when unfamiliar information is given?’ and for listening: ‘How can I improve listening to news on the radio?’ Students were free to Ask-the Experts at any point within a module. Students’ computer movements were digital-video screen recorded, and this together with direct observation and retrospective questions provided detailed insights into students’ learning strategies. Pujola notes the challenge of providing appropriate strategy training for all users: while most students found the facility interesting, providing strategic information they were not aware of, more strategically knowledgeable students reported it was of little use. The study also demonstrates the tensions students experience in distributing attention optimally to language practice and learner training: those students who never accessed the Ask-the –Experts facility cited time constraints and were concerned to devote enough time to the comprehension tasks. For a fuller discussion of strategies for online environments, see Chapter 15.
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A new model to teach literature for pre-training teaching programmes in Malaysian schools

A new model to teach literature for pre-training teaching programmes in Malaysian schools

Altogether there were 420 male and female students who participated in the survey conducted. The students were from various premier and non-premier daily secondary schools in the area of Johor Bahru. They ranged from Secondary One to Secondary Five students who had undergone literature lessons with their English language school teachers. These students came from the three major races namely Malay, Chinese and Indian and majority of them used their mother tongue in their academic as well as daily social dealings. Students in the upper forms, those who were in Form Four and Five, came from various streams namely the Arts, Commerce, Science and Technical. However, majority of the respondents in the upper forms came from the Science Stream.
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Language learning strategies and learner autonomy in learning Japanese

Language learning strategies and learner autonomy in learning Japanese

Foreign language learning is a continuous journey, not only limited to what is taught in a language classroom alone. Throughout the learning process, students should be guided to become autonomous so as to improve their language skills, be able to grasp the most out of what is taught in class and explore more about the language they are learning. In short, efficient and effective language learning experience requires both learning strategies and learner autonomy [8]. Recent literature in relation to language learning strategies and learner autonomy mostly focuses on learning English, with Japanese language learning strategies hardly receiving much attention [9], particularly in a foreign language learning environment. Additionally, literature on language learning strategies and learner autonomy tend to focus only on one or the other. On top of that, research that looks at both the use of learning strategies and learner autonomy is relatively limited and has only received recent attention. The present study thus intends to fill this gap. First, by identifying the language learning strategies used by Malaysian university learners, and then, by investigating the extent of learner autonomy with regard to learning Japanese as a foreign language. This study also attempts to find the relationship between language learning strategies and learner autonomy in the context of learning Japanese. By carrying out this study, it is hoped that the link between both learning strategies and learner autonomy can be obtained, thus contributing towards more efficient and effective language learning process of the Japanese language specifically, and other foreign languages in general.
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A Critical Review of Research on Language Learning Strategies Used by Arab Learners of English

A Critical Review of Research on Language Learning Strategies Used by Arab Learners of English

Learner autonomy is generally assumed to be advantageous (see Little, Dam, & Legenhausen, 2017), meaning that as autonomous learners, “we have a deep understanding of the process and practice of learning and the willingness to take charge of our own learning” (Mynard, 2019a, p.15). Recognition of the importance of the role of autonomy in language learning is evidenced by the proliferation of self-access centres. In these centres, language learners can gain access to various learning resources (e.g., computers, books, CDs, DVDs, internet) and have opportunities for using the target language and pursuing their interests. Hence, a self-access centre can contribute to creating proactive agents who are capable of thinking, wanting and using effective LLSs to accomplish their future visions (Hajar, 2019). In what follows, the paper will first present an account of existing LLS research by explaining its theoretical and methodological bases before going on to describe how sociocultural perspectives have advanced as a useful lens through which to consider LLS use. After that, previous studies into the LLSs used by Arab learners of English will be reviewed, given that these studies have not been included in preceding systematic reviews of LLS research (e.g. Oxford, 2011; Rose et al, 2018). This paper will close with reflections on the current state of LLS research and give suggestions for future research directions and pedagogical applications.
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Advance Alert Monitor

Advance Alert Monitor

Many researchers also found that some emotional issues show relevance to learning motivation. Oxford and Shearin (1996) identified six affective factors which influence motivation in language learning including attitudes, beliefs about self, goals, environmental support, involvement and personal attributes. Finocchiaro (1982) has concluded that the positive factors, for example, learners’ and teachers’ positive attitudes, the pleasant and safe environment which are interrelated to motivation should be sustained for successful transfer of language learning. According to the researches above, in the survey research about the English camp program in Malaysia, Ismail & Tahir (2011) believed that conducting an environment such as intensive ESL camp, which can drive the students to learn and to sustain students' interest in language learning will foster positive attitudes and motivate learning. Within this learning environment students are provided with activities which combine in-class activities with after - class ones. All activities are based on communicative, integrative, pleasant and non-threatening enthusiastic elements. Teachers should try to create the diversities of English learning styles inside and outside the classroom in order to encourage and enhance the English learning for students. This research gives other researchers a wide scope in assessment and evaluation of ESL camp activities and takes on the complete manipulation of mixed method research.
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English language majoring students’ use of the english language learning strategies vs  their academic achievement: the case of hawassa university students

English language majoring students’ use of the english language learning strategies vs their academic achievement: the case of hawassa university students

improves their English language learning/proficiency. Learning strategy has been defined in various ways. Oxford (1990, p. 8) defines learning strategy as “specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations.” Her definition is usually taken as a model definition because she is an authority and the definition also includes what are missed in the definitions of many scholars. Classifications of learning strategies carried out at different times were based on different issues. The early taxonomy was based on the strategies good and poor language learners use. The current classification has been based on the direct/indirect contributions the strategies make for learning or on the level and type of information processed by learners when they use them. Oxford (1990) classifies learning strategies into two broad categories. Her classification is based on the role of the strategies for learning. Strategies that give direct contribution to students’ learning are named as direct strategies and strategies that play indirect role are called indirect strategies. Direct learning strategies include memory, cognitive and compensation strategies and indirect learning strategies include metacognitive, affective and social strategies (Refer the table appended and shows the specific English language learning strategies that a student does as far as each of the six groups of the language learning strategies is concerned.). Oxford’s (1990) classification of learning strategies is comprehensive, and thus has been used as the theoretical framework by many researchers such as Rahimi et al., 2008; Deneme, 2008; Vidal, 2002; Sasaki, 2000; Ellis, 1994 (cited in Alptekin, 2007).
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Proceedings of the 6th Irish Game Based Learning Conference

Proceedings of the 6th Irish Game Based Learning Conference

Numerous reports have highlighted the need to address the national language skills’ shortage (e.g. 2015 National Skills Bulletin, Ireland’s National Skills Strategy 2025, National Employer Survey, 2015). At the same time, it is well established that students in the Irish Higher Education system have very diverse learning needs who need flexible learning opportunities (National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030, 2011). In terms of language learning, emerging digital technologies provide an opportunity to enhance the quality and delivery of language teaching (RIA, 2011). The introduction of gamification in language learning is a pedagogical strategy that can help increase motivation (Figueroa, 2015) in a technology dominated world. Research has also shown that a majority of students report not having enough support when transitioning from second to third level (Farr and Murray, 2016). They struggle with the expectation of becoming more autonomous in an environment where the teaching approach differs significantly from the one that is familiar to them. Furthermore, in a survey (Gabaudan, Ni Chasaide, Spain, 2016) conducted as part of the digilanguages.ie (project, language learners identify grammar as one of the three most challenging areas of learning a language. Against this backdrop, the resource presented in this paper is the result of a collaboration between three lecturers of French who identified the need for an overarching interactive learning tool, specifically designed for students who wish to understand and practice their French grammar in an integrated and playful manner. The resource is open, easily accessible and closely aligned to the learning outcomes of our modules, particularly in terms of grammar. The flexible format of the resource and its e-learning dimension facilitate autonomous learning as well as blended learning, thus contributing to a learner-centred pedagogical approach.
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English Language Learning Strategies Reported By Advanced Language Learners

English Language Learning Strategies Reported By Advanced Language Learners

Early research on key factors to successful language learning began with empirical studies on the behaviors of good language learners (GLLs), such as Rubin (1975) and Stevick (1989). In addition, research on learner characteristics attempted to identify particular traits that seem to be shared by successful language learners, ranging from intelligence and aptitude to personality and learner beliefs (Lightbown & Spada, 1999). There may be a varying degree of correlations between language learning outcomes and these traits, but it has been pointed out that individual characteristics do not predict the success of language learning with accuracy. Another relevant strand of research was aimed at identifying specific learning strategies employed by good language learners (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990, Wenden & Rubin, 1987, among others). In more recent years, studies on learning strategy instruction and learner autonomy have demonstrated that language learning strategies (LLSs) can be instructed to language learners and that learner autonomy together with motivations for language learning can lead to successful language learning outcomes (e.g., Ho & Crookall, 1995; Keene & Zimmermann, 1997; Kim 2013).
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Creative Language Learning Projects with Digital Media

Creative Language Learning Projects with Digital Media

Although there are many different types of applications on the internet that can be used for language learning, it is possible to think of them as affording two major types of language learning experiences: One is those that abide to a drill-and-practice or paper-and-pencil quiz or exercise mode of language practice. This more familiar method can come in many different forms including, for example, multiple choice, matching, and many other quiz types that created by the Hot Potatoes suite or a simple shooting game that involves one learner interacting with a digital media. It is obvious that these applications emphasize mastery of basic language skills. With intercultural communication competence, however, such discrete level or fact-oriented exercises without the learner’s personal engagement in the target culture may not be the best option. For the purpose of developing cultural understanding, learners need the experience “to approach, appreciate, and bond with people from other cultures” (Shrum & Glisan, 2005, p. 136), and the project-based approach is considered more appropriate. It treats the language learner as a language user, not learner, allowing them to make use of everyday digital tools and to take many different paths to use their language in order to develop intercultural communication competence.
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Editorial

Editorial

This issue also sees the continuation of our revived book reviews section. Tözün Issa reviews Melinda Dooly’s (2009) edited collection which looks at the ways in which language teachers make sense of their language classrooms; Tao Xiong reviews Xiaoye You’s intercultural account of the history of English language teaching and learning in China from 1856. We welcome contributions to this section of our journal; please contact our reviews editor, Melinda Dooly (MelindaAnn.Dooly@uab.cat) if you want to contribute a review.
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Talking in class : new entrant teachers' beliefs about oral language : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education), Massey University

Talking in class : new entrant teachers' beliefs about oral language : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education), Massey University

Do teachers believe that in new entrant classrooms the primary medium for talking, teaching, learning, meaning making and classroom communications is oral language?. What teachers believ[r]

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Observing Perceptions of Successful Second Language Learners of their Sources of Motivation and their Learning Strategies

Observing Perceptions of Successful Second Language Learners of their Sources of Motivation and their Learning Strategies

This was interesting to me as a literature major I was fascinated with the language itself, interesting-looking words, awe-inspiring sentences as well as the content: Western culture and ways of life, (etc.). Moreover, I was initially surprised that she was not interested in the fact that these channels speak “perfect English” as it could help her improve her English, what I had been dying for while in Iran-listening to perfect English for improvement and learning new words and expressions. But I did not talk about it in the interview. I somehow failed to show my surprise. I think that is part of my personality even with my native language that I do not show my negative feelings. I think this trait has penetrated also in my second identity with English. According to Brown (2007) second identity is at the heart of culture learning or what some call acculturation (p.182). As I listened actively to Aurora’s interview and considered Mishler’s (1999) reference to owning one’s world, I realized what Aurora may have tried to convey through her
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Investigating the Inhibitive Factors in the Speaking of Iranian EFL Learners

Investigating the Inhibitive Factors in the Speaking of Iranian EFL Learners

In another study by Darcy et al. (2014) the contribution of attention control and inhibition to second language learners’ phonological processing was explored. The sample of the study consisted of sixteen L1‐Spanish/L2‐English students along with eighteen L1‐English/L2‐Spanish learners. The attention and inhibition were measured, using a new attention‐switching program as well as a retrieval‐induced inhibition activity. Second language phonology (perception and production) was ascertained, using a speeded ABX categorization activity and a delayed sentence repetition activity. A measure of L2 vocabulary size was used to find second language proficiency impact. The findings showed a relationship between a more efficient attention control and effective performance in ABX (for the L2‐English learners). Moreover, a relationship was observed between higher inhibitory skill and higher ABX accuracy in all participants. No relationship was found with the production scores. These findings reveal that a more effective attention control as well as inhibitory skill promotes the phonological processing in the second language input, resulting in more accurate L2 speech perception and production.
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Vol. 2, Issue 1, March 2012

Vol. 2, Issue 1, March 2012

communication skills. Translation is a difficult activity to set up and can go badly wrong, producing some of the objections described above. There are many aspects to designing and running tasks. Firstly, it is necessary to plan carefully and fully, and to identify the right kinds of aims. Ensure that your source material really does focus on these, and has not been introduced just because you like it. Try to integrate translation with other skills/systems practice where possible. Make sure you have dictionaries and usage sources available. It is important to recognise the problems associated with traditional approaches to translation (a solitary, difficult and time-consuming activity using literary texts) and find solutions to these, such as ensuring these tasks are short (not easy), always working in groups, and maintaining the element of a communication gap where possible.As the objections above showed, learner perception of this activity is key. It is useful to explain your aims and discuss any concerns that your learners have; many activities use materials that can be generated by learners, which can have positive impact on motivation and dynamics. Avoid activities which require your learners to use their L1 a lot if you don't have a consensus in your class. Think about the possibilities and pitfalls of this kind of work in a multi-lingual group - discussion and comparison of L1 idioms may be very rewarding, for example, but working on a text not. Think about the different benefits of translation and more specifically L1 - L2 or L2 - L1 work in the context of aims and also of the class profile. Krings (1986:18) defines translation strategy as "translator's potentially conscious plans for solving concrete translation problems in the framework of a concrete translation task," and Duff (1994) believes that there are at least three global strategies employed by the translators: (i) translating without interruption for as long as possible; (ii) correcting surface errors immediately; (iii) leaving the monitoring for qualitative or stylistic errors in the text to the revision stage. Moreover, Loescher (1991:8) defines translation strategy as "a potentially conscious procedure for solving a problem
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The Investigation of Self regulation and Language Learning Strategies

The Investigation of Self regulation and Language Learning Strategies

students use in a language learning setting and their self-regulations in general. Up to date, comparatively few studies have examined self-regulation in language learning settings. For example, Kim et al. [8] investigated English language learners' self-efficacy profiles and their relationship with self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. In another research, Ekhlasa and Shangarffam [17] examined the relationship that the determinant factors of self-regulation strategies have with main four language skills and overall proficiency. Having a notable paucity of research investigating the relationship between students’ LLSs and their SRL levels, there is a need to study these two constructs more closely. Since LLSs and self-regulation are considered to contribute positively to student learning [18, 19], examining the link between them would offer researchers and practitioners some important insights into structuring the learning environment and helping students better.
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