The investigation was completed using research questions; however, as happens in many investigations, there were some problems in doing it, such as an enormous amount of information to choose from, making it very difficult to select the most adequate questions for this project. At the beginning a questionnaire for students was also contemplated, but during the investigation it became obvious that the most important factor in this work was the opinion ofthe teachers because ofthe complexity ofthe theme.The English teachers are obviously the most appropriate people for helping to raise culturalawarenessintheprocessoflanguagelearning among the students, and the researcher has already observed positive results: on The Day ofthe Dead ( Todos Santos) two ofthe teachers who had answered the questionnaire organized an activity to raise the students‘knowledge of their own culture, which seems to indicate that there has been a change in their attitudes.
One ofthe main reasons for this reaction, besides the large number of students is the lack of motivation provided by the teacher, as mentioned by Weimer (2006) motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a complex subject. There are some students who assume they do not have to participate as long the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory. As a matter of fact, they prefer other students do the participating, since they think participation does not improve the classroom experience. There is one important aspect to be considered inthe current research, and this is the large number of students observed in every class. If we take into consideration the time every class lasts - approximately 40 minutes- then; of course, individual participation results almost impossible to be done. Consequently, even though a good number of students prefer to listen and observe rather than engage inthe class discussion, it is a good idea to provide students written material, so that they come up with a brief comment, analyze and critique the activities in class. This will confirm that student is engaged and responded to class.
Before this research on field initiated, a profound literature review took place. To start with, some ofthe teaching approaches and methods related to the teaching of a foreign language were investigated to have a framework for the note-taking planned for later on. Then, the literature check focused on aspects like what the main concerns about class size are, how to manage learningin these conditions, the ways to run large classes, the kind of activities for working with this type of groups, classroom space and seating arrangement and the influence of different levels of proficiency in numerous classes. All these topics were selected because they are closely related to the matter of this study, and were used to interpret the results ofthe questionnaires.
After that , the field research started . Two public high schools ofthe city of Cariamanga were selected. The survey aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English teaching-learningprocess. The students were asked an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them which were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social. The gathered data was registered in tables, to do this, the quantitative method was taken into account. The research techniques used in this study were: Questionnaire , Note-taking. Instruments like questionnaire and tables were also applied. To analyze the results of this
In this observed class while the students were doing some tasks specially the speaking tasks, the teacher formed groups to talk about and describe personalities. Consequently, a good strategy to control large classes is the use of pair or group work. Brown (2007) mentions set up small ―learning centers‖ in your class where students can do individualized work.Scrivener (2012) agrees with Brown (2007) saying that large classes are likely to benefit from lots of pair and group work because it grants learners the opportunity to use and/or practice thelanguage themselves. Students enjoyed completing the task and presenting it to their
Teaching English has become inthe last century in a globalized world need and one ofthe most spoken languages inthe world, there is the growing need to train our students with the basic tools to understand thelanguage and communicate, the main purpose is to teach students to achieve mastery ofthe four skills supporting comprehension and expression through exercises of reading, writing, listening and speaking, while to interact and share with their peers what they have learned in class. Talking about the four skills seem wearisome to some teachers because every day they face difficult situations inthe classroom with students, teachers have to be very careful inthe preparation ofthe cla sses, innovate, reflect, look or design suitable materials and try to create different ways to make students learn easily and meaningfully. (DUSSAN, 2012)
The analysis ofthe existing university practice inthe field of professionally direc- ted teaching of foreign languages shows that intheprocessof intercultural communica- tion even those specialists who are fluent in a foreign language are still experiencing great difficulties in understanding the meaning of foreign professional communication. This happens due to ignorance ofthe norms and cultural values of another country, the lack of personal behavioral qualities necessary for effective communication in an intercul- tural environment. Therefore, the search for ways to organize the formation of intercultu- ral professional competence is one ofthe to- pical areas of pedagogical research aimed at optimizing higher education. There is a real need to determine appropriate conditions for the formation of intercultural competence among students of universities in accordan- ce with the requirements ofthe Federal state educational standards of Higher Professional education .
The results showed clear evidence that the instructional effects have the highest mean over the social and psychological effects, when students came late to the class, they found difficult to seat inthe front row, this would affect their learning. Another was the lack of space, and students felt that their teachers neglected the practical skills doe to their inability to control the class, on which classroom interaction was neglected, too. However, it appeared that despite the negative aspects oflearning English in large classes, there can be some positive aspects like students can get information from both teachers and students, there is a sense of competitions and a friendly relationship among students in large classes. Another results showed in large classes, negative effect students ‘learning and achievement,
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English language teaching-learningprocessin Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
On the other hand, Ferlazzo & Sypnieski (2012) insist that students from different levels of proficiency can be an advantage for working in class. The authors believe that students of a low level of English will feel obligated to catch up to the others of higher levels which can result in quicker learning. The authors mentioned above, say that when working in activities, teachers can make groups of students from high and low levels to encourage interaction. Besides these students can support each other in different skills, for example, one could be better at reading and another at writing in English. Consequently, teachers can work effectively with students from different levels of proficiency.
69 participants were in a learningprocess that comprised three main strategies: first, the inclusion of Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) principle, in which language is used to learn as well as to communicate; second, the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) such as videos and web tools that support thelearningprocess; and finally, the strategies: setting learning goals and collaborative work to foster Self-Directed Learning (SDL).The pedagogical intervention consisted of ten sessions that allowed the teacher-researchers to test the chosen strategies. Some ofthe methods used were: a diagnosis survey, a semi-structured interview, class observation, and students’ feedback. This action research study, which considered a mixed research approach to analyze data, found higher levels of motivation and certain behaviors that demonstrated that participants became more self-directed learners.
17 Snivicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002) claim that if the number of students is about 16, the position face to face is more advisable; on the other hand, there is another way to arrange the chairs: they can be placed around the tables which is called “café style”. The advantage of this type of organization gives a successful result because learners are in a comfortable position, since “café style” offers students the possibility to work in pairs or in groups. Also, the authors explain that during the ‘open pair work’ two students discuss some topics under the supervision of their tutor, while the other students can hear the discussion, they do not move from their chairs, which give them the possibility of establishing communication; moreover, the teachers could arrange the seats in a circle and learners can move easily.
This research “The influence of large classes inthe English language teaching- learningprocessin Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learningprocessin Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school inthe city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
Inthe same context, the Content-Based Instructions approach to second language teaching was studied by Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 204-220) refer ”t o an approach to second language teaching in which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllables”. Although content is used with a variety of different meaning inlanguage teaching, it most frequently refers to the substance or subject matter being learned or communicated through language, rather than thelanguage used to transmit it. In addition, CBI Stoller (1997) provides a list of activities classified according to their instructional focus. The classification categories she proposes are: language skills improvement, vocabulary building, discourse organization, communicative interaction, study skills, synthesis of content materials and grammar. The subject matter-core states that organization ofthe curriculum is consequent from the subject matter, more than from forms, functions, situations or skills. Authentic language and texts are used. Central material texts, video tapes, audio recording and visual aids are chosen
As far as The Natural Approach is concerned, Richards and Rodgers (2001) point out that this approach is seen as a traditional method of teaching because it focuses on observing and interpreting how students learn their native and second languagein an informal setting. Moreover, it is important to mention that the same authors state that from the beginning of a lesson, The Natural Approach emphasizes language exposure in order to make good thelearning preparation; it means that there is an amount of time in which students hear linguistic input before they make an effort to produce the target language being learned. In addition, House et al. (2011) say that inThe Natural Approach, the target language provides learners with input in a meaningful way since techniques such as TPR as well as mime and gesture are used.
The method of cooperative learning is not new intheLanguage Center ofthe National University of Chimborazo because it has been applied for many years. The teacher of sixth level "C" teacher has been working at the university for many academic periods so she could mention that when students experience this method, they feel anxious to participate and their scores on the subject are better than when they work alone but also it was noticed that students who do not have a good level of fluency inlanguage prefer do not participate and just let the students with a good level interact in class. Although this method oflearning is considered by many teachers oftheLanguage Center as an effective way to help low-achieving students to achieve success.
Inthe English Language course with a second foreign language: French at the Universidad Central «Marta Abreu» de Las Villas, there are some limitations inthe basic and complementary bibliography ofthe subject English Language II. The purpose of this research was to propose a Digital Library to systematize the bibliography to satisfy the students’ needs. The study was carried out from a qualitative methodology. The needs analysis allowed the selection and organization ofthe bibliography for the proposal. For the design ofthe Digital Library for English Language II (DLELII) the Greenstone Digital Library Software was used. Specialists from the area of English Language and Scientific and Technological Information evaluated the proposal and agreed that it meets requirements such as bibliographic completeness, updating, variety of sources, easy accessibility which resulted in a valid proposal for the improvement ofthe teaching and learningprocessofthe subject.
Our task about the world of professional translation and interpreting inthe German speaking countries can be found in: El mundo profesional de la traducción y la interpretación en Alemania. It has the format of a web-quest inthe sense of Koenraad’s “talenquest” (Koenraad & Westhoff 2003; Koenraad 2006) or the web-task for languagelearning described by Luzón (2007). It is designed to give significant, attractive and authentic input, it is based on a natural need for information, and it tries to promote the use oflearning strategies and the reflection on strategy development as well as on product and process. 3 In this version ofthe task, designed for students with a level of A2/B1 in German, the main focus is on receptive strategies and processing meaning, the productive and meaning negotiation phases being carried out inthe student’s mother tongue. However, the task could easily be adapted for more advanced learners by introducing more language production-oriented activities.