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UNIVERSIDAD LAICA VICENTE ROCAFUERTE

DE GUAYAQUIL

FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN MENCIÓN LENGUA INGLESA

CARRERA DE INGLÉS

COVER

PROYECTO DE INVESTIGACIÓN

PREVIO A LA OBTENCIÓN DEL TÍTULO DE

LICENCIADA EN LENGUA INGLESA MENCIÓN EN

ENSEÑANZA Y

ADMINISTRACIÓN DE SISTEMAS EDUCATIVOS EN

TEFL

TEMA

LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILLS IN 10

TH

BASIC

YEAR STUDENTS AT JACINTO GONZALEZ HUACÓN HIGH

SCHOOL DURING SCHOOL YEAR 2018-2019.

TUTOR

MSc. MÉLIDA ROCÍO CAMPOVERDE MÉNDEZ

AUTOR

JOICE SABRINA CERCADO MARTILLO

GUAYAQUIL

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ii REPOSITARIO NACIONAL EN CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA

FICHA DE REGISTRO DE TESIS

TÍTULO Y SUBTÍTULO:

Ludic activities to improve speaking skills in 10th basic year students at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón high school during school year 2018-2019.

AUTOR/ES:

JOICE SABRINA CERCADO MARTILLO

REVISORES O TUTORES:

MSc. Mélida Rocío Campoverde Méndez

INSTITUCIÓN:

Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte de Guayaquil

Grado obtenido:

Licenciada en Lengua Inglesa Mención en Enseñanza y Administración de Sistemas

Educativos en TEFL

FACULTAD:

EDUCACIÓN

CARRERA:

CARRERA DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN MENCIÓN INGLÉS

FECHA DE PUBLICACIÓN:

2019

N. DE PAGS:

129

ÁREAS TEMÁTICAS: HUMANIDADES

PALABRAS CLAVE:

Method learning, test, students, games, classroom.

RESUMEN:

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iii Quito: Av. Whymper E7-37 y Alpallana, edificio Delfos, teléfonos (593-2) 2505660/ 1; y en la Av. 9 de octubre 624 y carrión, Edificio Prometeo, teléfonos 2569898/ 9. Fax: (593 2) 2509054

improve speaking skills, communication and performance in language learners. Ludic activities give students the opportunity to deal with new learned vocabulary and plain communication. Ludic activities provide the opportunity to self-expanding of thoughts and ideas to students in the language being learned as necessary as possible. The amount of time spent on this practice of the language is what improves gradually with the right set of paces and the realistic terms of the situation. Ludic activities can become the class’ expectations of all which assist learners to take part in their daily activities where language is involved. Using the ludic activity approach method can improve proficiency with constant practice that is implied by the teacher in vocabulary learning that adapt to the needs of students. Speaking is the limelight of language learning which keeps developing and making it better for students’ performance when they interact with others. These ludic activities will be manifested with activities that can be found in books, on the internet and in a regular English class and its corresponding manual or guide of studying. This approach can assure the needed priority of speaking abilities in the English language through vocabulary; thus, it is important to design the appropriate material concerning vocabulary in which the 10th grade class at JACINTO GONZALEZ HUACÓN HIGH SCHOOL can improve speaking skills as highly required.

N. DE REGISTRO (en base de datos):

N. DE CLASIFICACIÓN:

DIRECCIÓN URL (tesis en la web):

ADJUNTO PDF: SI NO

MSc. Georgina Hinojosa Dazza, DECANA

Teléfono: 2596500 EXT. 221 DECANATO E-mail: ghinojozad@ulvr.edu.ec MTEFL Janeth Leticia Mora Zapater Teléfono: 2596500 EXT. 292 e-mail: jmoraz@ulvr.edu.ec

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vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I want to express all my great happines to my lovely GOD Jehovah, to give me all the necessary support through his consoling words in the bible. The ones which really support me in all the difficult times in the whole process of this project.

To my lovely and dear son Andrewsito even thought you were a little boy, you were a big reason to continue working hard to finish this career.

This project could not be possible without the significant support of my dear mother Gloria Martillo Piguave who always was behind me pushing me to finish the things that I have already started. Thank mom for all the good advices and all the moments that you were there to listen to me.

My dear father Oscar Cercado was also one of the persons who was there to remind me that I am his pride that is why he always is proud of me and it makes me feel special and strong to continue in the end of all this study process.

To my dear husband, my friend and my life companion Richard Indacochea because he is the person with who I want to share all my entire life and this was one of the things that we share together, Thanks my love.

To the excellent professional person who was next to me to help me with all the suggestions to make possible the conclusion of this project. As I always say, Thanks for all your valuable time, Miss Mélida Campoverde..

DEDICATION

First, to my Lovely God Jehovah who always gives the necessary support to finish this important project that is a necessary part of my professional career and of my life.

To my dear parents Gloria and Oscar for being the cornerstone in all that I am, in all my education, in my academic life, for their unconditional support even with my errors.

To my little Family Jersito, Andrewsito and my sweetheart Abigail , who are a really motivation to continue working hard in my professional career.

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viii TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER ... i

CERTIFICADO DE ANTIPLAGIO ACADÉMICO ... iv

DECLARACIÓN DE AUTORÍA Y CESIÓN DE DERECHOS PATRIMONIALES...v

CERTIFICACIÓN DE ACEPTACIÓN DEL TUTOR ... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vii

1.1 Background of the Problem ...3

1.2 Statement of the Problem ...4

1.3 Systematization of the Problem ...4

1.4 Research Objectives ...5

1.4.2 Specific Objectives ...5

1.5 Significance or Justification of the Study ...5

1.6 Scope and Delimitations of the Study ...7

1.7 Hypothetical Approach (hypotheses) ...7

1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ...8

1.9 HYPOTHESIS ...8

CHAPTER II ...9

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ...9

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ix

2.2 Theoretical Framework ... 10

2.2.1 Ludic Activities Role in Education Field. ... 11

2.2.2 Speaking Skills: Difficulties Inside the Classroom ... 12

2.2.3 Ludic Activities Help Students to Know the Weaknesses in their Speaking Production. ... 12

2.2.4 The Importance of Using Techniques, and Methods to Improve Speaking Skills. .... 14

2.2.4.1 Accuracy ... 14

2.2.4.2 Fluency ... 15

2.2.4.3 Coherence ... 15

2.2.5 Natural Approach is Linked with Ludic Activities. ... 16

2.2.6 Speaking Accuracy Starting from Little by Little ... 17

2.2.7 Improvement of Speaking Skills thanks Ludic Activities. ... 20

2.2.8 Classroom Environment to Gain Confidence in the Speaking Section. ... 23

2.2.9 Extrinsic Motivation ... 23

2.2.10 Interaction Inside the Classroom by using Ludic Activities. ... 24

2.2.11 Governance Structure and Language Function ... 26

2.2.12 Standards and Guidelines ... 27

2.2.13 Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador, 2017 ... 28

2.2.14 Threads According to the New Curriculum ... 28

2.2.15 Rubrics for Speaking Evaluation ... 29

2.3 LEGAL FRAMEWORK ... 29

2.3.1 Regulations Concerns ... 29

2.4 Conceptual Framework ... 33

2.4.1 Acquisition ... 33

2.4.7 Ludic Activities ... 34

2.4.8 Improvement ... 35

2.4.9 Speaking ... 35

CHAPTER III ... 36

3.1 METHODOLOGY ... 36

3.2 Type of Investigation ... 37

3.3 Investigation Approach ... 37

3.4 Techniques and Research Instrument ... 38

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x

3.4.2 Survey or Questionnaire ... 40

3.4.3 Research Population and Sample ... 40

3.5 Sources and Resources ... 41

3.5.1 Sources ... 41

3.5.2 Resources ... 42

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ... 43

3.6 Pre-Test Results ... 53

3.7 Post Test Results ... 58

3.8 Pre- Test and Post- Test Comparative Analysis ... 63

3.9 Preliminary conclusions ... 66

CHAPTER IV ... 68

4. THE PROPOSED PROJECT PLAN ... 68

4.1 Title ... 68

4.2 Objectives ... 68

4.2.1 Broad Objective ... 68

4.2.2 Specific Objectives ... 68

4.3 Content Framework of the Proposed Project Plan ... 68

4.4 The Proposed Project Plan ... 69

4.5 Impact / Benefits of the Proposed Project Plan ... 76

4.6 Conclusions... 77

4.7 Recommendation………...………….74

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xi LIST OF TABLE OF POPULATION

Table 1 ... 41

Table 2 ………...………...42

Table 3………..42

LIST OF TABLES Table 4. I like learning new words in English ... 43

Table 5.I can memorize words and describe pictures ... 44

Table 6. I like simple conversations to help my pronunciation. ... 45

Table 7. I like to interact with others by performing a famous person. ... 46

Table 8. I try to create stories using words I just learned in class ... 47

Table 9. I try to practice speaking with friends in English class. ... 48

Table 10. I try to practice English inside the classroom with the teacher ... 49

Table 11.I find conversations helpful when is done in the classroom ... 50

Table 12. I like learning vocabulary in a natural way to make speaking easier. ... 51

Table 13. I like to communicate using my own words. ... 52

Table 14 Pre- Test Results... 53

Table 15. Pre Test Results gotten by the students according to each aspect of speaking skills ... 54

Table 16. Accuracy ... 55

Table 17. Fluency ... 56

Table 18. Coherence ... 57

Table 19. Post Test Results ... 58

Table 20. Post test Results gotten by the students according to each aspect of Speaking skills ... 59

Table 21. Accuracy ... 60

Table 22. Fluency ... 61

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xii LIST OF GRAPHICS

Graphic 1 I like learning new words in English ... 43

Graphic 2 I can memorize words and describe pictures ... 44

Graphic 3 I like simple conversations to help my pronunciation ... 45

Graphic 4 I like to interact with others by performing a famous person. ... 46

Graphic 5 I try to create stories using words I just learned in class ... 47

Graphic 6 I try to practice speaking with friends in English class ... 48

Graphic 7 I try to practice English inside the classroom with the teacher ... 49

Graphic 8 I find conversations helpful when is done in the classroom ... 50

Graphic 9 I like learning vocabulary in a natural way to make speaking easier ... 51

Graphic 10 I like to communicate using my own words. ... 52

Graphic 11 Pre- Test Results ... 54

Graphic 12 Pre Test Results gotten by the students according to each aspect of speaking skills ... 55

Graphic 13 Accuracy ... 56

Graphic 14 Fluency ... 57

Graphic 15 Coherence ... 59

Graphic 16 Post Test Results ... 60

Graphic 17 Post test Results Gotten by the students according to each Aspect of Speaking skills ... 61

Graphic 18 Accuracy ... 62

Graphic 19. Pre test and post test Comparative Analysis of Accuracy Dimension ... 63

Graphic 20. Pre Test and Post Test Comparative Analysis of Fluency Dimension ... 64

Graphic 21. Pre Test and Post Test Comparative Analysis of Coherence Dimension ... 65

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xiii LIST OF ANNEXES

Annex 1 SURVEY TO THE STUDENTS ... 98

Annex 2 INTERVIEW TO THE PRINCIPAL ... 99

Annex 3 INTERVIEW TO THE ENGLISH TEACHER ... 100

Annex 4 PRE –TEST ... 101

Annex 5 ANSWER KEY PRE –TEST ... 103

Annex 6 POST –TEST... 105

Annex 7 ANSWER KEY POST –TEST ... 108

Annex 8 SPEAKING RUBRIC ... 109

Annex 9 GUIDE WITH LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILLS …110 Annex 10 ANSWER KEY GUIDE WITH LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILLS………...127

Annex 11 VALIDATION OF THE PROJECT……….……131

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xiv ABSTRACT

Today’s current research work needs to be as didactic as possible in order for teaching to be appropriate to students that are learning English. The influence of ludic activities is to improve speaking skills, communication and performance in language learners. Ludic activities give students the opportunity to deal with new learned vocabulary and plain communication. Ludic activities provide the opportunity to self-expanding of thoughts and ideas to students in the language being learned as necessary as possible. The amount of time spent on this practice of the language is what improves gradually with the right set of paces and the realistic terms of the situation. Ludic activities can become the class’ expectations of all which assist learners to take part in their daily activities where language is involved. Using the ludic activities as a method can improve speaking skills with constant practice that is implied by the teacher in vocabulary learning that adapt to the needs of students. Speaking is the prominence part of language learning which keeps developing and making it better for students’ achievement when they interact with others. These ludic activities will be manifested with activities that can be found in books, on the internet and in a regular English class and its corresponding manual or guide of studying. This approach can assure the needed priority of speaking abilities in the English language through vocabulary; thus, it is important to design the appropriate material concerning vocabulary in which the 10th grade class at JACINTO GONZALEZ HUACÓN HIGH SCHOOL can improve speaking skills as highly required.

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1 INTRODUCTION

Today’s it is necessary for research work to be appropriately focus in English for students to learn. The influence of ludic activities is always to improve speaking skills, communicate and performance. Plain communication involving ludic activities help students with the opportunity to learn more vocabulary, even though provide the opportunity of self-expanding thoughts and ideas in the language being learned as necessary as possible to students.

The quantity of time lost in the method can be propitious for the student with the constant use that involve the educator’s words by accommodate to the necessity of the student. Communicate skills can improve the language of the students, when they talk to others. This exercise can benefit the speaking abilities in the language, plus is necessary to choose the right words.

The exam makes relevant the mastery that students have in speaking skills. 20 students of 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacòn High School provided these results from a recent poll. The analytical examination of the investigation that was present was also given.

The diagnosis' results stated many things, including what is no longer a source of stress to students whom speak a foreign language but expressing themselves to an audience. Also, the technique that the instructor applies to guide students in an enjoyable, relaxing and friendly way helps remove anxiety from language learning.

The authors used a pre-test and a post-test with the sample of the student population to see if students could speak and understand the English language.

The following paragraphs will provide details about each chapter.

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2 On the other hand, chapter II includes a total critical review of previous knowledge and studies related to the topic of the research work, the review which identifies issues and gaps in knowledge in such field and that has led to the initial problem for periods of time referring to the safeguards against a study that may have already been conducted in previous situations or places with similar outcomes and protocols.

Chapter III-The modality and type of research are presented. The investigator has to explain why this study belongs to a specific category, according to the information provided in this chapter such as the modalities of the research which include field, bibliographic, pre-experimental (if necessary, pre-experimental research and such. The type of research includes exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory patterns as well.

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3

CHAPTER I

1. TITLE:

LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILLS IN 10TH BASIC YEAR STUDENTS AT JACINTO GONZALEZ HUACÓN HIGH SCHOOL DURING SCHOOL YEAR 2018-2019.

1.1 Background of the Problem

At “Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón” High School, the problem of some mistakes in the pronunciation and the sound of some words in the speaking part with the students from 10th grade is the objective of this investigation. Their desire of practicing their weaknesses during class will be something good to reinforce to make them feel comfortable enough.

The aim of this project is to resolve the different issues of pronunciation of students from 10th grade. For most of the students speaking might be the toughest part of applying the language even making them to abandon it which is a mistake because at the beginning speaking may be tough but with practice, they will reach the level they want.

Conversations exercises may be the hardest one because it can make them to feel a little bit awkward if they are not comfortable enough of expressing themselves and worst if they aren’t able to understand the other person. That is why listening exercises must be practiced together with the speaking ones.

In the process of learning there are some times in which we have some idea in our head or some expression and suddenly one or two words get away from the sentence that we were trying to say, that might be some of the most common problems because people start to memorize instead of learning how to say it.

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4 1.2 Statement of the Problem

How do ludic activities improve speaking skills on students from 10th basic grade?

1.3 Systematization of the Problem

 Which exercises can help students at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón from tenth grade to improve their speaking skills?

 How can the ludic activities be important in the English classes to improve spekaing skills at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón on students from tenth grade?

 What are the mistakes that students at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón from tenth grade have on talking abilities?

 What are the reasons for talking trouble that students face from tenth grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón while they talk?

 What are the reasonable answers for speaking challenges on tenth fundamental year students at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón?

 What sort of techniques could be connected to improve understudies' speaking improvement at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón?

 What different targets will be secured legitimately or in a roundabout way by tending to the issue of talking abilities?

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5 1.4 Research objectives

1.4.1 Broad objective

To determine the influence of ludic activities on 10th grader´s speaking skills at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

 To realize a pretest to get the results of the speaking level of students from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón.

 To focus on the weaknesses of the students from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón to start working on them.

 To work with ludic activities to get an improvement on speaking skills of students from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón.

 To determine the improvement on students from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón on speaking skills through ludic activities.

 To take a posttest to evaluate students from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón and get a general result from it.

 To contrast students´ from 10th grade at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón level of improvement by taking in account the pretest and the posttest.

1.5 Significance or Justification of the Study

Communication is the backbone of our society. It allows us to form connections, influence decisions, and motivate change. Without communication skills, the ability to progress in the working world and in life, itself, would be nearly impossible.

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6 Central to all that we do, it must be the students who will benefit. We view effective communication as supporting students’ learning, so it applies to all subject areas. We try to make it clear to schools that effective communication is more than just pronunciation, intonation or articulation. Communication also involves the teachers’ classroom discourse and interaction that deepen thinking to help students internalize and process subject content.

We believe in teachers and students co-constructing knowledge together, particularly in the subjects that involve multimodal aspects of communication, for example, visual data such as graphs, charts, and statistics.

Effective communication must consider the context and purpose for which teachers and students are communicating. Given the emphasis on 21st century competencies, more demands are being made on the students to explain, justify and reason through problem-solving strategies.

The interaction among students as they co-construct knowledge becomes important too. We want them to recognize the role of language in meaning making and see communication as a collaborative activity. It shouldn’t be just one-sided, as in teacher disseminating information, but two-way with teacher and/or students responding to each other to deepen content learning.

Effective communication means that the receiver fully understands, comprehends and interprets what the speaker has conveyed. It can be important in the teacher and student’s daily life because communication is the key of the successful relationships. Even though it has become simple or complex in the human life is necessary to adapt the necessities of a real effective communication without memorizing what it is going to be talk in the moment of interact with others.

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7 The project given will be a guide for the teacher in using ludic activities that will help students to improve their weaknesses and get a better confidence in the moment they talk. Thus, it is necessary to take in count the rubrics provided in the presented project in order to get positives changes and outcomes from students´ speaking skills.

1.6 Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This investigation points out on the domain that students have in speaking skills. The evidence in percentage comes from 20 students of the 10th from Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón high School for the analysis of the research done. Once the observation is complete, we will apart from the lack of confidence, the lack of resources in class to do the activities more interactive and motivate students to be part of it.

The lack of language usage in class is a problem too, because they don’t have ideas in their mind to express what they want to refer to. Therefore, we can notice in many people the wrong idea of “think in Spanish to translate in English”, but we can say that it is a bad way to try to learn a new language and develop it in an accurate way.

Many years ago, students can interpret any information as they want and the rest of them if they don’t want, it wasn’t a problem because they don’t feel interest on and the teacher neither. But, nowadays is important to go beyond and start working on the improvement of the speaking skills in English class because it is not just a grammar activity or a subject to get grades it is also a way of communication over the world.

The delimitation is an important part of the problem to reach a positive improvement on speaking skills parts. The student confidence is an indispensable piece in the process of getting an improvement of speaking skills because in the moment they talk to others they cannot feel scare of expressing or saying something in a new language.

1.7 Hypothetical Approach (Hypotheses or Research Questions or Ideas to Defend)

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8 meaningful. That is why it is necessary to create o apply ludic activities to improve their speaking skills.

1.8 RESESARCH QUESTIONS

How can ludic activities improve 10th grader´s speaking skills at Jacinto Gonzalez Huacón.

1.9 HYPOTHESIS

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9

CHAPTER II

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Literature Review

Several studies have been made showing us that the amounts of tension, stress and anxiety levels are so high during the sessions of the speaking tests or exercises. Other studies made by J. Asher shows that those levels of anxiety decrease when they had an interview or something like that. It turned into fabricated from three sections. The effects of those analyses advised, among many other matters, that it's miles no longer a supply of scholar anxiety to speak in another language but talking in the front of the magnificence is. Further, the method the teacher uses to correct college students in a comfortable, nice manner can extensively reduce language tension with such attitude.

J. Asher said in (2015) that stress linked to playful activities has grown to this day to be an importance for his studies. The research examination, a mix of the language and effectiveness, are the results of the participation of 25 college students. The research tells important configurations in language elements, speaking and the method of doing so. This exam also proved if the speaking stress existed for students expressing themselves in formal activities amongst professionals. The results displayed that literature skills upgraded a mile long when oral talents carried out as ludic activities tension supressed. The guest and user tests states that difficulties in culture and language are two things college students experience while being tested

Peter carrel (2015) established a link between the tension presented on students and the way of how they speak and learn the language resulting in a test that show us that the words, phrases, and verbal method used influenced in how the students feel about the moment when they talk to another person or in public. Being in touch with the native audio system provided inside the school and classroom plus the informal gaining knowledge of additional content that is stimulating in attitude for all adjustments and linguistic gains as correct as possible.

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10 only applying the correct vocabulary and the correct content can make students aware of it works and their surroundings.

In order to develop and adjust correctly your addition in the language, students have to be close and in touch with their school provided materials and their exterior surroundings. As confirmed by HD Brown in 2015, mastering the art of language is looked at as using the methods and formulas that assist you in a way that new learners convey them to highlight and express their vocabularies.

By this reason the students need to have the ability of use speaking skills and grammar at the same moment of communication because that is the purpose of know a new language in the communicative teaching technics in Ecuadorian government that helps with their documentation of students to be able to do B1 exams at the end of their last high school year. Frank Johnson (2015) says that it is beneficial to develop the oral ability by using some useful activities such as participate actively inside the classroom and have some short conversation between teachers and students. In this way it can be possible to gain oral improvement.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

The key of speaking is correspondence. These skills have a method where the partaken don’t need a previous or prepare outline and it shows their idiomatic expression and vocabulary in daily circumstances. The original language has not been used as part of the classroom. In other hand vocabulary is strictly used for other subjects. This technique demonstrates the unexperienced, first time users who are learning in which the language concentrate in what they are trying to say are not on the same structure. It’s the opposite of the generation that worth the format dialect.

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11 messages. The vocabulary in the two observations and the origin is seen as fundamental in the growth of messages

This approach works in the utilization of dialect in informative circumstances without a plan of action to the local dialect of the understudy and without reference to linguistic examination. It depends on the Naturalistic dialect learning in youthful kids. There is an accentuation on presentation and on input. The focal part of dialect isn't syntax however correspondence. Dialect is seen as an indispensable for conveying implications and messages. The vocabulary for both observation and creation is viewed as basic in the developments of messages.

2.2.1 Ludic Activities´ Role in Education Field.

Ludic activities are considered institutionalized. They are focused on making a test for the whole world to know how important the ability of talking and how this approach is. With this evaluation, they want to know how well a man talks a dialect considering all the facts like the execution of a scope dialect against determined criteria. This is part of assortment of undertakings such as describing or speculating in order to make good oratory at the best speaking to an extensive variety of ability in semantic and structures ways.

It talks about how the low class is very different than the other levels because the way they absorb enough information and it could be slow or fast it all depends in the way you catch the information and your student’s attention. For the high level it’s easier to speak more fluently than the low class.

Also it says that English is the most used language in the world cause if you have the ability to talk very fluently it could be imperative in the present globalized world. It’s used in a large portion for logic, scholastic, social, etc. And this language is consider as a tool which give us courage to prepare ourselves.

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12 teaching in Ecuadorian government that helps with their documents their students to be able to do B1 exam at the end of their last high school year.

2.2.2 Speaking Skills: Difficulties Inside the Classroom

Speaking skill(s) separates the almost impossible process of Second Language Acquisition into just four simple levels and specifics learner and teacher personality at each one. Getting the details of each level allows the teacher to communicate better and to choose teaching methods. The art of speaking separates the process of an outlander language acquisition into four basic steps and gives details for teacher and learner attitudes. If the teacher knows the details of each level of the speaking skills, he or she will know how to communicate and teach better, choosing the right method to do it.

There are some circumstances that makes teachers provide a mediocre class and that is why is not possible to get a speaking improvement inside the classroom. The first one is a long-time class making it bored and a not dynamic activity, the second one is that somelong-times classes have a lot of students, and students don’t learn at the same way as others do.

The noise of people speaking at the same time, affects the class, this won’t let other students pay attention. In addition, students have to respect and do not laugh at the person who’s talking, because this might make the student feel uncomfortable.

Plus, students may lack of confidence to pronounce well so it will make them to avoid talking outside and also inside the classroom, because their classmates will laugh at them and it will have not allowed them to develop their speaking skill in a good way. Teachers need to be strict without losing the patient in order to make them understand and remember that the classroom is the place where they can make mistakes and learn from them.

2.2.3 Ludic Activities Help Students to Know the Weaknesses in their Speaking Production.

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13 students and teachers will know which areas they should work more in order to achieve a better result.

When someone is developing a new skill like speaking a new language there 2 important things to be considered and they are the accuracy and the fluency.

When we are talking about accuracy, we are referring to how well the student can combine grammar, vocabulary and everything while they are talking. And fluency is how good the student expressed his ideas during the conversation or dialogue but there is one important fact and it is that not only expressing but responding to the audience too.

Hamer (2015) says that there are three reasons for educating ludic exercises or lock in understudies by connection each other within the classroom. Instructors ought to know these critical reasons to induce students´ consideration or organize ludic exercises assignments in their lessons to encourage understudies in the use of their dialect. The most reason is that ludic exercises can give openings to the understudies to oversee their way that they express each other in a perky manner inside the classroom some time recently they put in hone what they have been wiped out a secure setting.

In addition to this, is that these activities can provide a kind of feedback for the community involved in this process. According to what both parts can notice between the way that they try to express each other in the speaking part the person who has a low level can improve the speaking part by practice on the mistakes that need to be worked on. Furthermore, these practices can make them activate their prior knowledge of language, structures and speaking skill(s) to recall and apply them. Students need to be given the opportunity to also find the time to get familiar with the activity. If we practice a lot, learners become more autonomous and they are capable to speak to have a conversation by using their own words, phrases in a fluently way.

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14 2.2.4 The importance of Using Techniques, and Methods to Improve Speaking Skills.

One of the supporting points is that practising the mentioned activities give everyone in the process a safe feedback. Students can be sent to work with corrective assignments in order to be more accurate when speaking whether it’s about delivery, intonation or any other.

These are great because it helps not only the students but the teachers to recall and apply their prior knowledge. This can help them be more comfortable and since they’re practising more, they’re able to be more fluent and conscious in the language matter.

By this reason the students need to have the ability of use speaking skills and grammar at the same moment of communication because that is the purpose of know a new language in the communicative teaching in Ecuadorian government that helps with their documents their students to be able to do B1 exam at the end of their last high school year.

It would be as discovered. They are saying that the experience academics ought to proportion with their students regarding the special factors of each phrase is taken into thought to be the natural technique depth. Moreover, lesson plans must comprehend the flavourer technique breadth that refers to a number of phrases faculty students will contemplate activity the language. Being that this study includes the verbal technique and speaking. Those 2 standards could also be investigated and evolved therein order in these foundations. Paraphrasing a few standards of Brinton et al (2014)

2.2.4.1 Accuracy

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15 2.2.4.2 Fluency

Fluency is how well the words in a speech, conversation, dialogue or simple norms of communication of a person are displayed, delivered and executed when speaking. It also deals with the fact of responding to communication between two or more people. The student should be able to respond adequately and in a coherent manner, allowing for utter understanding and concrete reasoning can be found in what the speakers are talking about. Fluency also deals with the way the speaker can deliver the words in a concise, moderate and reasonable dialogue. The registry (how addressing someone and the words used in a conversation with such person) should also be coordinated with such person(s). We do not address people all the same. The way someone speaks to a Doctor, a Teacher, a Judge or any other type of professionals in the world differs from the way we speak to our peers, family members, and in some cases, parents.

2.2.4.3 Coherence

Coherence refers to the ability to speak at length, including organizing ideas logically and appropriate signposting to indicate the direction of thoughts. It also refers to the ability to express and justify opinions and to discuss and speculate about issues without long pauses or repetitions of the same words.

Obtaining a word moreover incorporates open and viable data. The primary alludes to see or recognize lexis in considering sections or tuning in tracks. The second is the capability of students to use a word whilst writing or speaking. We can detect that in the moment we follow the process of learning new words it will be easy to express a logical idea, a clear idea and avoid to think too much in what saying because the lack of phrases in our lexical.

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16 The importance of speaking skill leads to the students being able to acquire the knowledge through the teacher and the strategies of communication that emit in the educational development of the student.

2.2.5 Natural Approach is Linked with Ludic Activities.

The speaking skills is important for the students, to get more knowledge and get more strategies of communication.

Krashen and Terrell tell us that the natural approach that are related with Ludic activities giving us the idea with a verbal or simple version, that’s the first class to use strategy for the coach technique, this allow to many specialists that analyze the deals with each student and to determine how to make them to get to the knowledge and what scene improve to the teacher how to help the student to get more methods, techniques and games to help the students to get involved and get the knowledge.

The main classroom approach to the strategy of physical reaction guards the noiseless stage, holding up for the level of ludic exercises within second dialect to be handled a connected, at this point, emphasis is set on the method. Given this truth, the method of underlying growth is produced through the significance of procurement and its distinction within the put of phonetic handling, being vital that the data is justifiable through the educator, this is the substance of dialect and lexicon.

Pulverness, Spratt & Williams (2012) say that a good technique you can develop in any of the four skills of the language are ludic activities. They are considered to be productive. This refers that it is an oral practice not a conceptual one. It also involves amplifying your speaking skills by giving important information to others. These activities are more important than just improving speaking skills explicitly words pronunciation. During a conversation the person desires to do it in a fluently and correct way. For Thornbury (2006) ludic activities are the most relevant because they are equivalent with experience.

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17 communicate it. For example, some students know and understand the language but they can’t answer simple questions. And, practising helps you more than knowing the rules.

2.2.6 Speaking Accuracy Starting from Little by Little

Pulverness, Spratt & Williams (2012) define ludic activities as a technique that can be used in one or any of the four skills of the language. It is classified into the productive ones. This means that it is producing orally the language than receiving it. They add that it involves applying speech to transfer meaningful information to others. Ludic activities include more than just identifying and applying speaking skill(s) accordingly and accurately in uttering words. When information is exchanged the person considers addressing the desire to communicate successfully. For Thornbury (2006) it is the most important because ludic activities a second language is frequently equated with proficiency.

Spears and Williams state that Alexis regard to singular words or put or words, supposed unit of the regular perspective that have the specific significance in a coming situation or position where they show up. Terms present a wide vital analysis of perspective educators can save a score or when score their classes.

Students can be different things, which can be called indication or detonative importance. As an example, we could say the white house, the noisy dog, the horrible tragedy and so on continuously. Some words you can give us a figure of speech meaning, like for example the family tree, crystal clear.

Another term does their concept with regards for a phrase where is going to be used. As an example: the girl was extremely tall in the step. On the off moment that we take a look at a photo we noticed that we are alluding to a teenager lady or woman. She is large. Maybe the stepping stool was short, the home, the room, or the place was tiny that the girl looked surprisingly tall. The meaning can also come from particles inside toward the start or toward the final of the terms (prefixes and postfixes). In this case, teachers can make students very intelligent of how the concept of the words alters by using many prefixes or additions.

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18 we have collocations which are joined to give a significance: "life expectancy" or "eating disorders" are collocations. Some phrases are too short to be considered as it: "has a PC". In the case of idiom, has a defined way of understanding due to words purpose.

It appealed as a storm with a violent wind for a few moments. Somehow, it was strangely pouring down. Suddenly, out of nowhere or without a warning, a bunch of canines and catlike animals could be seen coming down from the clouds. This had no sense. “Lumps” could be a new concept to research. It means words united and grouped in a fragment. Compound words, collocations and maxims can be use as examples for it.

A brief comparison with the CLIL Natural Approach relates to the way in which this procedure underpins a hypothetical structure, today referred to as the 4C training framework, this framework is an all-encompassing model, comparing to the improvement of communication, cognition and the combination of culture unique in relation to the understanding of the dialect's way of life. The CLIL is powerful and, through speaking skills, should be considered as vital 5 measures to be applied in the classroom: advancement of the dialect procurement, capacity and perception of vocabulary content, responsibility in the adjacent procedure of the intellectual elements, cooperation with the correspondence setting, and improvement of the appropriate procedure with relational skills and the level of inter-relationships.

To increase what a word has. Nuttall (2015) show several kinds of relevant sentence might possess. They might not be practical (The meaning of a word with someone else's input) prepositional (the relevance of words in a statement) logical (it is primordial that a sentence has to be in a specific context) Moreover (there must be a close significant relationship between the author and per user)

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19 Besides, Pulverness records some sub-skills for speaking. Adviser can use them as an agenda to include them in their quiz gets ready for utilization. In the occasion that they need to start measuring the viability of particular sub-skills. They can show and platform them with indicative and preform assessments and thoroughly research comes out

By the use of ability, and attributes. Host of the topic of the talk, exposition or situation exchanging information, people must be informed about the limit of the composition to use and adding the form and meaning it passes on. Suitable to the normal path will act in accord to reasonable, intelligible and smooth to others.

The use of register to a more appropriate speaking. There are some different ways to spread to somebody even if they are specialist or related. Learners need to practice even their speech it’s going to be formal, semiformal or informal.

Showing non-verbal correspondence. What we state must be according to the outpourings of our body. We can send a stirred-up message if either doesn't organize.

- Uttering particular substance sorts. Instructors need to open understudies to a couple of sorts of works, so understudies become more acquainted with them and can use them as models when they practice before conveying the lingo explicitly settings.

Getting comfortable orally. Using most or most of the sub abilities might be a sign to appear or guarantee that we are natural when we address others in a particular situation.

- Supporting talk with instinctive frameworks. Transmitting a message incorporates four viewpoints: the speaker, the examiner, the message and the interesting situation. Understudies need to separate them and practice in a protected space before they truly go up against a real situation.

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20 - This creator moreover says that real dialect is basically a dialogic communication; human creatures are continuously association with others. He incorporates 3 definitions of exchanges (lines in a dramatization, a communication, and a strategy of transaction through discourse). He notices they're significant for the taking after usages of exchanges in a consider room putting:

It's a verbally expressed exchange among individuals, particularly a couple, and the record of that transaction.

Dialogs might be found in books where they get hold of the timespan of pre-scripted or so alluded to as unscripted. In the event that they're pre-scripted it technique they might be provided inside the content in a state of a correspondence. At the point when educators adjust that content to the researchers' specific situation, at that point it will wind up.

•They can be real or mimicked.

• There is the likelihood to document exchanges. • They might be advanced through explicit characters.

• Their awareness could be structure (to investigate the language sentence structure), which means (for data) or a blend of each.

• There are types: value-based or interactional.

• The cooperation can be among undergrads, educator scholar(s) or researcher/instructor and others (government or guests).

2.2.7 Improvement of Speaking Skills Thanks Ludic Activities.

Scholars need to talk with their readers indeed in spite of the fact that they may by no implies meet. Instead of sound framework who may fit their discourse to fit the person that's taking note of them (Bilbrough, 2007).

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21 Both characteristic methodology and the old normal techniques are not regular in numerous viewpoints. Significantly more in Prendergast and Marcel, they gave a few duties coordinated to the educative model over the span of the nineteen centuries. Marcel's goal was to be mean while he was showing another dialect, so thusly individuals would have been ready to learn and comprehend another dialect. At the opposite side Prendergast gave the bases for the improvement of normal methodology and after that the Characteristic Technique. He utilized and looked at bases of the learning of an absolutely new dialect to the procurement of the main language. Prendergast highlighted on disturbing in children their calendars while talking a surveying their correspondence considering the particular condition. Besides, he chooses the post-development sort out as the moment where technique should be changed in accordance with update the learnings of understudying.

The Nuttall, 2015 the inscription of the topic matter by method of contend that not all terms are very crucial. Show are proposed are begin by select the terms that can be disregard, and cognizance no these that stand for understanding. The author supply that there are parcels of terms: live and open intellect. The past alludes to these alluringly strategy on somebody day base. The Moment Company those that you just keep recognize and answer to but no expansive eager utilize. Usually significant in student’s individual expression or L1 and any far-off writing. It is distant censorious to the instruction new kids on the block to distinctive these expressions so they center those they crave for the transmission.

Cohen shared a method for utilizing talking skill(s) that has worked for him. It includes understudies building up their own lexis cards. He recommends utilizing a pocket-measure that makes them versatile. Understudies can record the word they wish to know, practice, strengthen or unite. Furthermore, they are sans shoddy standing and effectively rearranged to improve informative and intelligent exercises. The procedure may begin by picking the words. Instructors can give the rundown; however, it is better if understudies choose the words independent from anyone else since this will keep up the force. It is fitting to request that understudies create ten cards per week. This relies upon the quantity of hour of classes and the substance as per the educational programs set for the class.

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22 them will impress teachers but others no so much, the think it is boring. That’s why teachers

give students guides to know how to begin and end the cards. It will be useful to have an example to follow. In the front students should only write the word they have to know. They can use corners to write: a quick definition paraphrasing, an example in a sentence, punctuation.

This likewise constructs inspiration since understudies are certain of what they are stating and how they are rehearsing. Controlled practice goes before more liberated practice as they upgrade helpful, albeit some of the time restricted, readiness for talking. A key angle to consider is amendment, now instructors should need to make understudies mindful of error or abuse of the structure though in familiarity errands remedy ought to be stayed away from or gave as input toward the finish of the training or exercise.

Speaking skill(s) has certain similitudes to the immediate strategy, with the significant special case that understudies are permitted to utilize the first language alongside the objective language as a component of the English language learning process. Taking into account that in the beginning periods, understudies are not used to obtain information of the language, and in the instructing learning process, expresses that the legally binding dimension of the instructor to have no instructive methodologies, drives the understudy to neglect to become familiar with the English language.

It is essential to think about the attributes of the understudies before contemplating any execution. Educators are slants of the understudies learning in grabs or person. Meters (2015) distinguished three profiles in a young learning study hall to engage instructors and benefit as much as possible from their classes.

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23 Docents are always aware of the necessity to promote civilization with the students into the study context.

A student needs to blend the normal centering and structures to express their sentiments. They don't work without the other. The educator's job is to decide the class and sum to embed in isolated or in a progression of exercises and their structure to help understudies y de between them. A few connections examples and sexual orientations could be connected to dodge weariness.

Pulverness (2015) proposed that couples and collaboration rise chances to communicate in the study hall. Docents ought to be cautious with the exercises for understudies to improve themselves.

Think that on every Day set up Learners and teachers talk in different ways, according to their community, situation and interests. Also, Bilbrough, adds books in which their way of expressing themselves is authentic, original and crucial for a dialogic. The language is a way to transmit ideas and a feeling to talkers. It is a way of answering to a previous spoken or even written phrase or information that could be happening in that exact moment or it could just be assumed.

2.2.8 Classroom Environment to Gain Confidence in the Speaking Section.

It is important to consider the characteristics of the students before thinking about any implementation. Teachers are slopes of the students learning in gropes or individual. Meters (2015) identified three profiles in a youth learning classroom to empower teachers and make the most of their classes.

2.2.9 Extrinsic Motivation

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24 There is one factor to be consider before applying something and are the characteristics of the students because no student learns as equal as other, so teachers must able to identify them in 3 groups. But whatever type of student they are, is always important to have a positive environment for them in order to adapt easier to any group or activity.

The 3 types of student are:

• The one that doesn’t want to learn and does not care at all of what the teacher says. • The intelligent ones that want to participate in every question not letting everyone to participate

• The “group work” they can’t work alone, always making noise with their friends trying to impress them with his intelligence.

Students must practice a lot in order to apply what they learn, and the correct way to do it is by ludic activities that wake up their bran and emotions. Buckingham (2015) States that teacher’s work is to encourage students to work by their own and get rid of that fear of talking and trying to learn something new.

Thornbury (2006) says that socializing is crucial for people, in that way they will be able to apply their skills in other level, something more common and being in constant practice with others, not only for talking but responding to different questions.

Also implementing couple work will provide a good environment for them while learning.

2.2.10 Interaction Inside the Classroom by Using Ludic Activities.

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25 A student needs to blend the normal centering and structures to express their sentiments. They don't work without the other. The educator's job is to decide the class and sum to embed in isolated or in a progression of exercises and their structure to help understudies y de between them. A few connections examples and sexual orientations could be connected to dodge weariness.

Pulverness et al (2015) proposed that couples and collaboration rise chances to communicate in the study hall. Docents ought to be cautious with the exercises for understudies to improve themselves.

Also, Bilbrough (2015) adds that books are a dialogue and authentic language use is crucial dialogic. The transmission of any idea or feeling is the transmission of people who speak and it can have a respond of the previous conversation or written information exchanged that is actually happening.

The ordinary methodology ascended out of Terrell's experiences in indicating Spanish classes, in spite of the way that it has furthermore been used as a piece of fundamental to bleeding edge classes and with a couple of various tongues. Meanwhile, he joined Stephen Krashen, an etymologist at the College of Southern California, in structure up a speculative reasoning for the customary methodology, drawing on Krashen's convincing theory of second vernacular acquirement. Krashen and Terrell's joined creation of the principles and practices of the typical methodology appeared in his book Talking skill(s), appropriated in 1983. The book by Krashen and Terrell contains speculative fragments masterminded by Krashen depicting his viewpoints on the verifying of the second tongue (Krashen 1981, 1982), and sections on study hall use and procedures, by and large orchestrated by Terrell.

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26 beings to take delivery of that speaking skill(s) and the Natural Method are synonymous terms.

2.2.11 Governance Structure and Language Function

The actual government has made a statement regarding Education which has been widely spread to the whole community. This has implied some transformations in the bodywork of the composition and equipped establishments with ideas to modify tutoring. In this way, The Ministry of Education has stated some measures that must achieve schools as bases, pillars, teachers, and pupils. Understandably, we already know widely that they should guarantee a B2 level to be eligible to teach at secondary institutes. To work at universities, it’s necessary to have a C 1 level.

Talking about understudies, the situation is similar. In spite of the way that for auxiliary school understudies, they should achieve a B1 and while finishing their school considers they should have grabbed a B2 level. With a particular ultimate objective to the training learning bunch achieve the rules, the specialists have made and disseminated files that run what and how to instruct as to English. The principal focus of those records is to empower understudies to develop their enlightening vernacular aptitudes pondering these benchmarks:

- Language is a framework for the articulation and transport of importance. There is association for data transference.

- The fundamental capacity of dialect is association and correspondence. Educators ought to not just concentrate on syntax structures, and testing. Students ought to have an incredible assortment of activities to impart in various collaboration designs. Buckingman (2015) states that "enabling students to present is regularly what has the effect between actions in which there is showing happening or where the students are simply being tried".

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27 2.2.12 Standards and Guidelines

Language is a groundwork for the articulation and transit of importance. There is organization for data transference. The principal capacity of dialect is association and resemblance. Instructors must not just concentrate on syntax formats, and testing. Scholars ought to have a magnificent collection of activities to transmit in different collaboration designs. Buckingman (2015) said, "Enabling students to present is regularly what has the effect between actions in which there is showing happening or where the students are simply being tried". The arrangement of dialect mirrors its functional and open hiring. Again, the consolidation ought to be correspondence not just the format and the way words are meticulously composed in a sentence.

The unstuffiness of interaction between students and anyone else, Bad bank of words in their mind, the necessity of better texts, that lack of participation in class evidenced in the students and the little dynamic material that students have are just some of the reasons that can we tell in this investigation. For Ecuadorian most students it is necessary that the education system has a complete support on this language. The goals have to be completed with recreation and humble in order to have prosperity in national and international in all the world in this new millennium.

Complicated and brain worker are the way listening exercises should be taken; and must be done as, with sense and motivating. The need of providing chances to do listening for comprehension, specification, inferring and put on practice your knowledge. Fractions found in multimedia network will contribute learners to improve their pronunciation abilities such as stress, rhythm, and intonation that are necessary resources. At the moment of doing the assignment, the results will not depend on your listening abilities, the topic will be easy to understand. The development of speaking has a filter in which the pronunciation of words is more important than what is actually talking about, this form of qualification has decreased the quality of the significance of looking for coherent information. In fact, is like to copy and start to imitate the structure and modify it, without having in mind the resources that are needed.

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28 actions, clapping) so students can feel more comfortable and original; having no shame to participate, and having another type of thoughts about learning. It does not have to be boring when you have a variety of options to make a dynamic class and at the end of the day learn something new.

In the text, the extension of conditions like sounds, rhythm, languages, intonation, and just having fun is more important than the grammar and vocabulary information it has.

2.2.13 Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador, 2017

The lack of communication, no vocabulary, the need of an interactive book, the insufficiency of class participation found in students and the shortage of dynamic material to be shared among students are just a few of the reasons that can be named that has launch this research and this dissertation. For Ecuadorian students to get the English language, it is necessary that there be complete support in the language of the educational system. Goals need to be accomplished with innovation, justice and solidarity that will prepare the mean Ecuadorian learner in order to contract with prosperity in local and international communities in this new millennium (Educacion, 2015)

2.2.14 Threads According to the New Curriculum Listening

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29 participate, the genuine attitude of enjoyment of the teacher and the goal of this sub-thread is to experiment and regurgitate large pieces of language.

The grammatical and lexical content of these texts is less important at this stage than their expense in terms of sounds, rhythm, intonation, expressions, idioms, and simple enjoyment.

2.2.15 Rubrics for Speaking Evaluation

In the past, rubrics didn’t exist any particular way that helps how to check an evaluation of any idiom exam. Students just had to translate and that was their evaluation. The project conducted and the rubric that is involved will be scored over 10. The way to assess student`s speaking skill will be focused on Fluency, Accuracy and Coherence to improve the use of the language with its vocabulary, terminology, structure, and organization of the interaction without hesitation.

Tone of Voice, Eye contact and Gestures play an important part of this evaluation too because the main points of the presentation will be addressed with its necessary confidence to develop all of them. The audience reaction will also be considered.

Visual Aids work as supporting material such as flashcard, wall charts, illustrations, physical materials will add creativity, credible and relevant resources for the audience to make the project stand ground.

The effectiveness of the presentation will work with all these aspects to evaluate in which imagination takes place for students to develop communication with vivid and expressive performance.

2.3 LEGAL FRAMEWORK 2.3.1 Regulations Concerns

CAPÍTULO CUARTO DE LOS NIVELES DE GESTIÓN DE LA AUTORIDAD EDUCATIVA NACIONAL

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30 asegurar el cumplimiento cabal de las garantías y derechos constitucionales en materia educativa, ejecutando acciones directas y conducentes a la vigencia plena, permanente de la Constitución de la República. Está conformada por cuatro niveles de gestión, uno de carácter central y tres de gestión desconcentrada que son: zonal intercultural y bilingüe, distrital intercultural y bilingüe; y, circuitos educativos interculturales y bilingües.

Art. 26.- Nivel central intercultural. - El nivel central formula las políticas, los estándares, planificación educativa nacional, los proyectos de inversión de interés nacional, las políticas de asignación y administración de recursos, formula políticas de recursos humanos que garantizan representatividad de acuerdo a la diversidad del país en todos los niveles desconcentrados. Coordina la gestión administrativa de los niveles desconcentrados de gestión. Regula y controla el sistema nacional de educación, para lo cual expide las normas y estándares correspondientes, sin perjuicio de las competencias asignadas a los distritos metropolitanos y a los gobiernos autónomos descentralizados en la Constitución de la República y la Ley. Las máximas autoridades educativas tendrán como una de sus funciones primordiales transversalizar la interculturalidad para la construcción del Estado plurinacional y garantizar una educación con pertinencia cultural y lingüística para los pueblos afroecuatorianos, montubios y para las nacionalidades y pueblos indígenas.

Art. 27.- Niveles desconcentrados. - Son los niveles territoriales en los que se gestionan y ejecutan las políticas educativas definidas por el nivel central. Están conformadas por los niveles zonales, distritales y circuitales, todos ellos interculturales y bilingües. Se garantizará la existencia de instancias especializadas del Sistema de Educación Intercultural y Bilingüe en todos los niveles.

Art. 28.- Nivel zonal intercultural y bilingüe. - El nivel zonal intercultural y bilingüe, a través de las coordinaciones zonales, de distritos educativos metropolitanos y del distrito educativo del régimen especial de Galápagos, define la planificación y coordina las acciones de los distritos educativos, y realiza el control de todos los servicios educativos de la zona de conformidad con las políticas definidas por el nivel central.

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31 intercultural y bilingüe, de conformidad con lo definido por el nivel central; su estructura y funcionamiento será definido en el respectivo reglamento. En todas las zonas donde sea pertinente, se garantiza una instancia para la atención específica a la Educación Intercultural y Bilingüe que desarrolle y fortalezca este sistema. El coordinador o coordinadora de la zona donde exista mayoría de un pueblo o nacionalidad pertenecerá a ese pueblo o nacionalidad.

Art. 29.- Nivel distrital intercultural y bilingüe.- El nivel distrital intercultural y bilingüe, a través de las direcciones distritales interculturales y bilingües de educación definidas por la Autoridad Educativa Nacional, atiende las particularidades culturales y lingüísticas en concordancia con el plan nacional de educación; asegura la cobertura necesaria en su distrito intercultural y bilingüe en relación con la diversidad cultural y lingüística para alcanzar la universalización de la educación inicial, básica y bachillerato; y garantiza la gestión de proyectos, los trámites y la atención a la ciudadanía.

Además, interviene sobre el control del buen uso de los recursos de operación y mantenimiento, y la coordinación, monitoreo y asesoramiento educativo de los establecimientos del territorio, garantiza que cada circuito educativo intercultural y bilingüe cubra la demanda educativa. El ámbito de acción y ejecución de las políticas a nivel territorial de los distritos educativos interculturales y bilingües corresponderá a los cantones o circunscripciones territoriales especiales del nivel correspondiente según el número de establecimientos educativos y la población estudiantil, garantizando atender la diversidad cultural y lingüística de cada distrito. En las ciudades con más de doscientos mil habitantes se podrá crear más de un distrito educativo intercultural y bilingüe en concordancia con las áreas administrativas establecidas por los gobiernos locales.

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32 Art. 30.- Circuito educativo intercultural y o bilingüe. - El circuito educativo intercultural y bilingüe es un conjunto de instituciones educativas públicas, particulares y fiscomisionales, en un espacio territorial delimitado, conformado según criterios poblacionales, geográficos, étnicos, lingüísticos, culturales, ambientales y de circunscripciones territoriales especiales. Las instituciones educativas públicas del circuito educativo intercultural y ó bilingüe están vinculadas a una sede administrativa para la gestión de los recursos y la ejecución presupuestaria.

Cada circuito intercultural y o bilingüe creará un consejo académico que tendrá no menos de tres y no más de siete miembros que serán nombrados por los directores y rectores de los establecimientos educativos que lo conforman; en el caso de las instituciones particulares estas participan con un representante en el consejo académico con voz y voto exclusivamente en temas pedagógicos.

Cada circuito intercultural y o bilingüe cuenta con un administrador, quien será una o un profesional encargados de los ámbitos administrativos y financieros de las instituciones educativas públicas del circuito. Será nombrado mediante concurso de méritos y oposición. En el caso de los circuitos conformados por una mayoría de centros educativos de un pueblo o nacionalidad, el administrador o la administradora deberán pertenecer al pueblo o nacionalidad del circuito correspondiente.

Art. 31.- Competencias del Consejo Académico del Circuito Educativo Intercultural y/ Bilingüe. - Son competencias del Consejo Académico del Circuito Educativo Intercultural y/o Bilingüe, las siguientes:

a. Vigilar el cumplimiento de políticas y estándares educativos en el circuito;

b. Impulsar la calidad educativa en establecimientos del circuito conjuntamente con asesores y auditores educativos;

c. Diseñar e implementar planes y programas de desarrollo educativo del circuito; d. Elaborar estrategias de mejora continua del área pedagógica incluyendo el desarrollo

profesional de directivos y docentes;

e. Diseñar e implementar programas educativos interinstitucionales relacionados con el desarrollo local;

Figure

Table 4.1.I like learning new words in English
Table 5.2. I can memorize words and describe pictures
Table 6.3.    I like simple conversations to help my pronunciation.
Table 7.4.I like to interact with others by performing a famous person.
+7

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