Concerning to the first question, a test of this hypothesis has to deal with some difficulties. We need to know the productivity associated to in-house provided services, data hardly available. It is then necessary to use an indicator of productivity provided by statistics ofthe service sector assuming that the pattern of differences in productivity among services is correctly reflected by service statistics. We are conscious ofthe difficulty of measuring productivity in service activities. The reason is that quality components are an important factor, and therefore the production will be underestimated and the usual price indicators are biased. Of course, measurement problems on quality are not specific ofservices. For example, the changes in quality in some high-tech industrial products, as computers, have originated an abundant literature treating to build quality-adjusted deflators based on hedonic prices. However, given that a general characteristic of service activities is that they cannot be stored, objective characteristics (i.e, processor velocity, RAM, etc.) can not be used as an indicator of this kind.
Replication: In this model the company’s success is dependent on efficient, repeatable business processes rather than on shared customer relationships. Thebusiness units are not dependent on one another’s transactions or data; the success ofthe company as a whole is dependent on global innovation and the efficiency of all business units implementing a set of standardized business processes. As a example, ING DIRECT, a subsidiary or the Dutch financial services giant ING Groep, is direct-to-customer operation, offering simple banking products to 13 millions customers of nine country-based bank organizations in Europe, North America, and Australia. Customers access ING DIRECT via the Internet, mail, or phone. Products are easy to understand with no fees or minimum deposits and simple features with no complex rules. Its country- based business operates autonomously, but they share a common set of standardized business solutions as well as standardized technical infrastructure components. Country managers can decide which modules they would like to adopt, but they cannot introduce customized local solutions for key components. The modularity of ING DIRECT’s systems is highlighted by seven service groupings. Even external services, such as prospecting and publishing agency reports, are designed as modules interfacing with the ING DIRECT infrastructure. Customer relationship services allow each country-based bank to manage its customer data and interactions.
Author’s thesis thinks that Spain is a good choice in order to expand their business mainly due to two different reasons. After several years of strong recession, Spanish country and society are both returning to normal as Author’s thesis shows with the economic data provided by many different statistics studies. This will active the consumption and people will expend more money because they are not afraid ofthe situation anymore. On the other hand, their culture is very important to make the decision as well because of their Mediterranean diet and their concern about the healthy. Mediterranean diet is based on a high cereals consumption and this will provide Milzu a good advantage when its business starts. Their concern about healthy is important for them because the number of people with different health problems is increasing, and they are specially worried for children obesity.
Perhaps the only informative aspect that does not follow the theoretical principles that define hyperlocal online media is the one referring to sources. Far from finding a significant number of them and a greater representation ofthe members ofthe community and their neighborhood associations, the results show an average inferior to one source by news and a presence of actors and official institutions much superior to the rest. In short, it is possible to conclude that the space and the proximity media are inthe process of transformation inthe digital environment ofthe networked society. Hyperlocal online media redefines the ecosystem of local communication inSpain and Portugal and opens new paths to the experimentation of new business models, organization and information production.
In keeping with its mission, the center devotes considerable resources to developing relationships with companies prior to their becoming actual customers. While the amount of time required to develop each new prospect (8.7 hours) is on a par with similar centers inthe United States, the total amount of time spent on this activity is signifi- cantly higher in EDC Rafaela-Esperanza. Moreo- ver, despite the higher conversion rate, the abso- lute number of prospects that have not yet become customers is also higher. This may suggest the need for better targeting of marketing and sales effort, focusing attention on “qualified” compa- nies that are more likely to purchase services. Another area that warrants attention is the amount of time that coordinators spend on individual projects. While the average project load is rela- tively light, field staff at EDC Rafaela-Esperanza commit a great deal of time to active projects compared to other similar centers inthe United States even though the size ofthe typical project in terms ofthe dollar value is equivalent. Again,
of 2013 have given some guidance regarding definitions 1 and other small issues, but this is far from being enough because the larger problem is to set out rules at an international level to allocate the rights to tax income created by CBS and where they fit in as to income qualification and treatment, as Prof. Dr. Brian J. Arnold have stated when talking about the importance ofthe taxation of IPTS in developing countries “it is relatively easy for multinational enterprises to reduce the tax payable to a source country in respect of a group company resident and doing businessin that country through payments for services rendered to that company by other non- resident group companies. The payments will generally be deductible in computing the income ofthe company resident inthe source country but may not be taxable by the source country inthe hands ofthe non-resident service provider” 2
The privatisation of urban water services has probably generated more contro- versy than with any other type of local services. Up to certain consumption levels, water shares some ofthe features of merit goods. This fact, in addition to the way the water industry is organised around local natural monopolies, has been used as the basis for arguments that seek to deter the privatisation ofthe service or, at least, to advise extreme caution when doing so (Littlechild, 1988). In this regard, legisla- tion in some developed countries does not allow for the privatisation of urban water services (OECD, 2004), while other countries such as the Netherlands and Uruguay have even safeguarded national regulations to ensure public provision (Marques, 2010). Furthermore, in recent years a number of municipalities in developed coun- tries, including prominent cities such as Paris and Berlin, have been remunicipalising urban water services (Hall et al., 2013). At the same time, growing opposition to new privatisations is emerging from certain left-leaning political parties and citizens’ movements (Lobina et al., 2011; Mazzoni & Cicognani, 2013; Fattori, 2013). Some authors have gone so far as to declare that the trend towards remunicipalisation is a global one (Lobina et al., 2014).
In order to study and analyze the vocational training in Spanish companies, a research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture was presented. We have worked together inthe project during three years (2000- 2003); the 10 Spanish regions conceptualized as Objective 1 by the European Union: Andalusia, Asturias, Cantabria, Canary Islands, Castilla-León, Castilla- La Mancha, Extremadura, Galicia, Murcia and Valencia. As a methodological strategy applied, in addition to literature reviews and the use of official sources, a qualitative and quantitative methodology has been developed to allow us to understand and analyze more rigorously the level of training and development of organizational culture in these regional spaces. Specifically, 48 interviews were carried out, which were semi-directed to privileged witnesses ofthe sectors in charge ofthe training (trade unions, employers, administration and most important training centers) and, in order to describe and analyze in depth the training activity and the culture of Spanish companies in these regions, we proceeded to the completion of a set of 527 surveys made by sampling throughout these regions to companies that previously confirmed the practice of activities related to training.
InSpain as in other countries, especially ofthe developed world, public administrations have un- dergone an enormous transformation in all policy areas related to communication with the citizen as a result ofthe use of Internet. Spain has tradition- ally been opaque with respect to the disclosure of information (Cornella 1998) . Inthe private sector this has been excused by concern that the information may be used by the competition. Inthe public sector it has been due both to a tradi- tional incapacity to serve citizens effectively (re- sulting from the worst aspects ofthe bureaucratic model), and to the absence of appropriate public policies . This began to change at the beginning ofthe 1990s towards a citizen-centred model. The political impulse came from the central adminis- tration through the “Plan of Modernisation ofthe Administration ofthe State” of 1992, and new administrative legislation regulating the use of
If we analyse this distinction, it is reminiscent ofthe one postulated by Saussure in 1916, between language and speech. According to Saussure, language is the system used as a means of communication. It lies inthe subconscious of individuals and is comprised of signs. Speech is the realisation ofthe communicative act of using language. It is the voluntary and social act ofthe speaker, and depends on the context in which he or she is communicating (Saussure, 1916). From our point of view and that of many experts, communication success in a second language lies in effective communication, and not inthe formal correctness of language (Boonkit, 2010; Graddol, 2006). This effective communication can be achieved with proper use of language without involving its perfect use with no mistakes. However, we have to ask ourselves if effective communication occurring in a less-than-perfect second language meets the objectives of functionality or, conversely, if both communicative and linguistic quality are required to achieve functionality. Thebusiness environment, in which we have conducted the research presented here and analysed effective communication and quality with which it occurs through the evaluation of such oral production.
Institutional programs in Universities’ websites have been reviewed, to analyze the degrees in Economics and Business. For the sake of simplicity, we have chosen the five public Universities located inthe Madrid region, inSpain. These Universities are currently developing 30 different programs, with 23.234 students registered in academic year 2016-17. Every program is classified within its narrow field of education (19 programs inBusiness and 11 programs in Economics). Double degrees are considered separately, if associated with a Social Sciences degree or with an Engineering/Mathematics degree. Every program has been analyzed to confirm which topics are delivered. Table 5 shows the information gathered.
Finally, the values must not be taken in a literal way by, for example, assuming that 75% of Murcia’s network is superfluous. In  the slack values (that have been monetized) also reach 75% in some cases, which means that this does not seem to be an anomaly. The relative values ofthe slacks instead highlight tendencies. Thus, Murcia clearly has a problem with the design of its lines, while in other cases a 30–40% slack would indicate the need to study or reconfigure the lines. The same can be said for cases of eﬃcient companies which present slacks one year: the value does not indicate that they are not perfectly e ﬃ ciency, but that they could have some problems with some lines.
Their excellent land, sea and air links and modern local transport systems provide easy access to large markets such as the European Union (503 million consumers) and the Euro-Mediterranean market (461 million consumers). Moreover, Catalonia and Barcelona serve as an excellent springboard into Latin American markets (582 million consumers). The historical ties between Spain and Latin America are numerous and substantial. Having Spanish as a shared language has helped to establish and con- solidate intense diplomatic, institutional, commercial and business relationships. Consequently, Spanish compa- nies have traditionally invested heavily inthe region and still do, especially inthe infrastructure and service sectors. As a result, Chinese companies arriving in Catalonia with plans to expand into Latin America can benefit from the privileged trade relations that compa- nies in Catalonia maintain with firms in that region. Catalonia, because of its strategic location and excellent transport systems, is a gateway to Europe, a platform for North Africa and a springboard to Latin America.
The OECD (1999a) study on multinationals provides a preliminary analysis of foreign affiliates based on a few main countries (US, Germany, Japan and Canada). These statistics are not fully comparable; methodologies vary and not all countries include the same items (e.g., US hotels and businessservices are not included). There is a clear under-representation of FA service firms in terms of turnover and employment compared to manufacturing FA. However, this does not hold for the number of enterprises. The number of FA service firms in these four countries represents 64% of total foreign affiliates. Germany shows the highest relative service percentage, 75% (47% in trade, hotels and restaurants). Japan and Canada have a similar rate, (64-66%), but distributed in a very different way (Japan 56% in trade, hotels and restaurants, while Canada 36% in finance, insurance and businessservices). The figures for the US are lower (57%, of which 36% in finance and insurance) but this is probably due to statistical problems. The high proportion of service FA does not correspond to figures related to employees or turnover. German, Japanese and US service FA firms only employ 31% and produce around 46% of total turnover. On the contrary, 22% of manufacturing firms employ 47% of employees and produce between 35% of total turnover in US and 56% in Canada.
Garrido-Cumbrera, M., Borrell, C., Palencia, L., Espelt, A., Rodriguez-Sanz, M., Pasarin, MI., Kunst, A., (2010). Social class inequalities inthe utilization of health care and preventive servicesinSpain, a country with a national health system. International Journal of Health Services, 40(3), 525-542. doi: 10.2190/HS.40.3.h
Agricultural insurance inSpain dates back to the beginning ofthe 20 th century, but remained fairly unimportant and underwent various waves of decline and resurgence until 1978. This year saw the passing ofthe Agricultural Insurance Act which set the stage for a continuous growth of agricultural insurance inSpain. The Spanish system is based on a mixed public-private model, in which farmers’ unions and association do also play a crucial role. Interested readers can learn a complete description ofthe Spanish insurance system in OECD and EU reports (OECD, 2001 & European Commission, 2000). In Figure 1, we plot the total liability of agricultural production, including livestock production, and the ratios of total expenditures in premium subsidisation over total liability. The graph shows the steady growth ofthe agricultural insurance, which now reaches about 30 to 40% of all eligible production. Farmers inSpain can choose among more than 200 different policies, that provide coverages to all possible crops and animal production. The system has evolved inthe last 20 years to offer a wide menu of products to a wider range of crops and animal production. Premium are subsidised by the Spanish and Regional goverments in a percentage that range from 20 to 45% ofthe market premium. Inthe period 1980-2004, loss ratios for all policies, experimental policies and viable policies, were respectively, 99.56%, 114.31% and 82.98% (Agroseguro, 2004), indicating that the system has grown following sound actuarial criteria.
This priority is the one that makes formalized the innovation process by creating structures that allow them to channel and exchange knowledge among the different innovation actors inside and outside the KIBS firm (Bessant & Rush, 1995; Tiidd & Bessant, 2014). There is still little research about the innovation structures that allow the creation of this open, collaborative ecosystems as well as when this practice is not good for innovation (Bogers et al., 2016; West et al., 2014). Besides, with the rise ofservices as the most important part of a country's economy claims for new business models that provide new or updated service offerings (Nair et al., 2013; Tether & Tajar, 2008). Regarding our analysis approach, K-means and LDA; performed the partition of disjoint K clusters after a number of iterations grouped by centroids, for one side, and the assignment of our document (in our case the corpus of interviews and tweets) a mixture of topics categorized, respectively, we found out no significant differences inthe interpretation models: recurrent terminologies are present in both sides, e.g. innovation, technologies, and occurrences of certain companies related with KIBS in both methods, showing us the strong similarity, inthe perception in this study case.
The ITCM on the other hand, uses survey data from individual visitors to link thedemandof natural resources to its determinants. These include how far the visitor must travel to get to the site, the amount of time spent travelling, travel and on-site expenses, their income and other socioeconomic characteristics, etc. Therefore, this method allows the amount of visits pur- chased at different prices to be calculated. The two advantages to the ITCM are that it follows conventional methods used by economists to estimate economics val- ues based on market prices and also relies on what peo- ple actually do rather on what people say they would do in hypothetical situations (Bell and Leeworthy, 1990). Due to these reasons and to the weak theoretical foun- dation ofthe behavioural patterns inthe aggregate demand models, this version is preferred over the ZTCM (Bhat et al., 1998; Buchli et al., 2003; Nillesen et al. 2005, etc. and Pérez y Pérez et al., 1998; Riera, 2000; García and Colina; 2004, etc. inSpain), but in any case, economic theory shows individual models to be superior to zonal models (Fletcher et al., 1990).
de Andalucía (Andalusian regional government), Telefónica, and the Cajasol Foundation and is one ofthe support pro- jects for the innovation Andalucía Open Future and the pro- gram 100 Caminos al éxito (100 paths to success). The ge- neral public and communities can take part inthe initiative by registering free of charge on its website. They then par- ticipate inthe initiatives proposed and purchase tickets to attend, which only charge if the necessary audience for the event is eventually achieved. Its collaborative business phi- losophy highlights its promotion of new creators that provi- de their platforms free of charge for promotional purposes and to facilitate the screening of their proposals under a transparent remuneration model based on the number of viewers achieved. It is important to highlight the indepen- dent titles released in certain locations, which would almost certainly not have otherwise been possible, for example: - The tribe (Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy, 2014)
To be sure, public transport patronage inSpain varies considerable across metropolitan areas and by trip purpose. The share of public transport in major cities is higher than in smaller ones for all journeys’ purposes (Madrid: 31.6%, Barcelona: 18.6%, Seville: 13.4%, Alicante: 12.3%), and the use of public transport in many places tends to be slightly higher when the purpose is travel to work or to school (Madrid: 40.4%, Barcelona: 23.9%, Seville: 12.1% Alicante: 8.8%). The picture for car trips is similar: private cars are used more for trips to work, reaching shares that exceed 50%. This similarity highlights a notable characteristic of Spanish cities compared to other countries, that is the high share of walking trips, especially for the case of non-compulsory journeys (leisure, shopping), which display shares between 40-60% depending on the city. However, the proportion of walking trips in compulsory journeys (work or studies) decreases in favour of car trips. There is also considerable use of suburban rail servicesin these areas, with rates around 10% to 20% in relation to the total journeys taken on public transport. These data substantiate international experience which indicates that an adequate supply of rail modes must be available in order to achieve a high quota of public transport patronage (Monzón et al, 2007). The high shares observed for public transport and walking trips are thought to be related to historically high levels of density in Spanish cities, an attribute that is gradually declining with the increased dispersion of metropolitan developments.