PDF superior The State of the World’s Children

The State of the World’s Children

The State of the World’s Children

Republic of); Iraq; Israel; Jamaica; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia (Federated States of); Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Niue; Occupied Palestinian Territory; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Qatar; Republic of Korea; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tome and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Tuvalu; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United Republic of Tanzania; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of); Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
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ESTADO MUNDIAL DE LA INFANCIA 2000

ESTADO MUNDIAL DE LA INFANCIA 2000

These maps are included to illustrate various aspects of the lives of children around the world. The selected indices capture some important but not all elements that affect children’s well-being. Data sources for illustrations are given on each map. For illustrations based on data from tables in The State of the World’s Children 2000, see ‘General note on the data’ on page 82 and the relevant table for further explanation of the data. As many countries as space allows have been included. Some island nations are surrounded by a box if an indicator may not otherwise be seen easily. Together, these maps present a snapshot of the well-being of children today. When the data on these maps are correlated, they show that negative conditions do not occur in isolation but, instead, clump together with the same children being affected by multiple and simultaneous events. These maps are graphic reminders of the effect of the absence, collapse or destruction of social service networks. However, the maps are ultimately positive as they also demonstrate the long-term benefits of social investment and stable environments on the welfare of women and children.
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THE STATE OF THE WORLD´S CITIES REPORT 2006-2007: THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: 30 YEARS OF SHAPING THE HABITAT AGENSA

THE STATE OF THE WORLD´S CITIES REPORT 2006-2007: THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: 30 YEARS OF SHAPING THE HABITAT AGENSA

The 2006/2007 edition of the State of the World’s Cities marks two important milestones: the dawn of the urban millennium in 2007 and the 30th anniversary of the first Habitat Conference held in Vancouver in June 1976, which placed “urbanisation” on the global development agenda. This publi- cation also marks a less triumphal moment in history. Thirty years after the world’s governments first pledged to do more for cities, almost one-third of the world’s urban population lives in slums, most of them without access to decent housing or basic services and where disease, illiteracy and crime are rampant. Since its establishment in 1979, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) has continued to highlight the important role and contribution of cities in fos- tering economic and human development. Understanding the complex social, cultural and economic dynamics of cities and urbanisation is more important now than ever before as we strive to attain internationally agreed development goals. In a rapidly urbanizing world attaining these goals will require poli- cies and strategies based on clear and accurate data on the human settlements conditions and trends in each country. This edition of the State of the World’s Cities advances this objective by breaking new ground in the area of urban data col- lection, analysis and dissemination. For the first time in the his- tory of the United Nations, urban data is reported here at slum and non-slum levels, going far beyond the traditional urban- rural dichotomy. UN-HABITAT’s intra-urban data analysis – involving disaggregated data for more than 200 cities around the world – takes this work further and provides detailed evi- dence of urban inequalities in the areas of health, education, employment and other key indicators. The implications are sig- nificant for the attainment of Millennium Development Goals as we can no longer assume that the urban poor are better off than their rural counterparts, or that all urban dwellers are able to benefit from basic services by virtue of proximity. UN-HABITAT has led the drive for urban indicators since 1991 by working with other United Nations agencies and external partners to consistently refine methods for data collec- tion and analysis and to better inform our common quest for “adequate shelter for all” and “sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world” - the twin goals of the Habitat Agenda adopted by the world’s governments in
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Adapting European Legislation to the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 Regulations in Relation to the State Responsibilities of Both the Flag State and the Control of Ships by Port State Control

Adapting European Legislation to the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 Regulations in Relation to the State Responsibilities of Both the Flag State and the Control of Ships by Port State Control

In the community setting, Directive 2009/16/EC, on the gov- erning Port State’s control of ships, reinforces the fulfilment of international legislation and European Union legislation on maritime safety, maritime protection, environmental marine protection, and the onboard working and living conditions of any Flag State’s ships; it also sets out common criteria for the governing Port State to inspect ships. In fact, the Paris-MOU came into force as of 1 July 1982 to facilitate the inspections of those ships sailing under foreign flags by governing Port States in order to verify that they meet the regulations included in the various international instruments by setting the frequency of these inspections in terms of their risk profile, and by submit- ting those ships at greater risk to more detailed inspections Community regulations—in agreement with that set out in the Paris-MOU, but improving it by converting its objectives into obligations for State Members—establish the aforementioned ambitious inspection objective: firstly, when inspecting all ships assigned a Priority I index, as set out in Letter a) of Art. 12 of the Directive; secondly, an annual fee for all the ship inspections assigned Priority Indices I and II made must be paid, as set out in Art. 12, Letters a) and b). This is at least the equivalent of the corresponding fee of the total number of in- spections made each year in the Community and in the Paris-MOU region. The inspection quota is attributed to Mem- ber States and is based on the ratio between the number of ships docking in State Members’ ports and each Member State of the Community and the Paris-MOU region.
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The Construction of a State Peace Policy and the Process of Conflict Resolution

The Construction of a State Peace Policy and the Process of Conflict Resolution

involve the state in more effective processes of conflict resolution through the implementation of a State Peace Policy. The central argument is that some of the critical elements that s[r]

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Women and politics in the Arab world. A state of affairs

Women and politics in the Arab world. A state of affairs

Tras estos debates, e iluminando especialmente lo que se refiere a la mujer y su participación en la esfera de lo político, se encuentra una reflexión esencial sobre la relación entre [r]

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CHILDREN CONCEPTUALIZING THEIR CAPABILITIES: RESURTS OF A SURVEY CONDUCTED DURING THE FIRST CHILDREN´S WORLD CONGRESS ON CHIL LABOUR

CHILDREN CONCEPTUALIZING THEIR CAPABILITIES: RESURTS OF A SURVEY CONDUCTED DURING THE FIRST CHILDREN´S WORLD CONGRESS ON CHIL LABOUR

(Table 2), but all of them were considered important or very important by a large majority of the child delegates. Furthermore, the results obtained by dividing the delegates into groups, by age, gender, type of country of origin (developed-developing) and working status, validate the list of relevant capabilities presented. The children in each sub-category identified all the 14 capabilities (except age for Mobility, as mentioned before) (Table 2), and for more than 75% cent of the answers these were important or very important (Table 3, column 5 onwards). This seems to reinforce the result that, irrespective of their specific background, among the children in our sample there is a common view on core capabilities. 32 The final question of the section was conceived of in order to select the most relevant capabilities without formulating a complete ordering of all of them (Q15): ‘Among the aspects we discussed could you tell me which are the three most important opportunities a child should have during her/his life?’ Among them the first five mentioned are Education, Love and care, Life and physical health, Freedom from economic and non- economic exploitation, and Leisure (Table 4). Education, Love and care and Life and physical health clearly stand out among the capabilities. This confirms the finding of Table 2. Mobility is never mentioned as one of the three most important capabilities, but clearly this does not mean that it is not a relevant capability for a child’s well-being.
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STATE OF WORLD POPULATION 2007: UNLEASHING THE POTENTIAL OF URBAN GROWTH

STATE OF WORLD POPULATION 2007: UNLEASHING THE POTENTIAL OF URBAN GROWTH

6 Las cifras correspondientes a la pobreza urbana son imprecisas y las estimaciones suelen ser deficientes debido a que muchos aspectos de la pobreza simple- mente no se miden. Las encues- tas o bien no consideran el carácter específico de las condi- ciones de vida en las ciudades (por ejemplo, la imposibilidad de cultivar alimentos o de recoger- los, el más alto costo monetario de artículos no alimentarios, el mayor número de personas sin hogar, el acoso, el desalojo o el arresto debido a sus viviendas o medios de vida “ilegales”), o bien la información que presentan es incompleta (por ejemplo, al no medir el grado de adecuación de las instalaciones de saneamien- to). Las estadísticas oficiales de las Naciones Unidas indican que en 2005 había en todo el mundo unos 998 millones de personas residentes en “tugurios”. Véase: ONU-Hábitat. 2006a. State of the World’s Cities 2006/7: The Millennium Development Goals and Urban Sustainability, pág. 16. Londres: Earthscan.
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Culture in Iran : the duality between tradition and modernity

Culture in Iran : the duality between tradition and modernity

10 of an imperial state whose begging’s had been traced by the Babylonians and Assyrians” (Avery, 1971, p. 5). Cyrus and Darius (c.550-486 B.C.), where responsible for creating what could be considered as a system very closely linked to the modern cosmopolitan state. This tolerance, and thus the contact between different cultures did also have an effect on artistic practices which where latter translated onto some of the most well- known capitals of the territory. To begin with, the words used for art in Persian denote several meanings that reveal its intrinsic nature on Iranian culture and customs, and its connection to all aspects of life. According to Sayyed Hossein Nasr, the words fann, hunar and san’at each hide a meaning which connect art and everyday life. Fann can be understood as “the correct manner of doing it”, hunar makes reference to “a particular skill or art” and san’at is used to refer to technology but in “crafts which are identical with the plastic arts” (Nasr,1971, p.19). Art in ancient Persia was mainly present in the sacred realm, manifested in buildings and architectural oeuvres. If we take as an example the ancient capital of the Acheamenid Empire, the mighty Persepolis, experts have asserted how “its architecture, combining eclectic influences from many corners of the globe, exemplifies the genius of the Persian spirit” (Milani, 2004, p. 14). This serves as an ancient example of how Persia and its dynasties not only incorporated but profited from the different cultures it encountered, adding its unique distinctive touch. The ability and desire of not only embracing and using the influence brought from different cultures, but their distinctly ability to make “‘borrowing’ fresh” (Avery, 1971, p. 7) adapting it to its own culture and going beyond a mere copy, are unquestionable characteristics of Iranian artists. Avery goes even further to affirm that from Herodotus onwards, “Iranian adaptability and quickness to borrow from others have frequently been commented on” (Avery, 1971, p. 8).
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Leaving the New World, entering history: Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, John Smith and the problems of describing the New World

Leaving the New World, entering history: Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, John Smith and the problems of describing the New World

John Smith, born in Willoughby (Lincolnshire) in 1580, felt the thirst for adventures very early in his life, which led him to leave his native village at age sixteen after his father’s death. A mercenary at the service of several European powers, he participated in a number of campaigns throughout Europe in which his bravery earned him the title of captain. While fighting in Transylvania in 1602, he was made prisoner and sold into slavery to the Turks. Back to England in 1605, he became involved in the colonization plans of the Virginia Company and joined the 1607 expedition to the New World to found the first settlement of the Company. Troubles during the journey made some consider the possibility of sending him back to England immediately after their arrival. However, when instructions were opened after arriving in Virginia, as it was the custom, it was discovered that Smith was one of the seven-member council devised to rule the colony, which put an end to his enemies’ plans. The group arrived in Jamestown on May 13, 1607 and began the task of colonizing.
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Brave new world: un mundo de ideas

Brave new world: un mundo de ideas

So as we can see, the pleasure principle is another central feature of the Brave New World. Procreation is essentially illegal and even repugnant, and the only purpose of sexuality is pleasure. The conditioned happiness of the World State separates men from deep experience, keeping them from being fully human. Technology and pleasure enable the creation of the utilitarian paradise. Utilitarianism is a theory which holds that the adequate course of action is the one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering, so above everything else, Huxley's novel is a send-up of utilitarianism. On the other hand, Christianity's view suggests that suffering is going to happen and that people need to be prepared with their manner of dealing with it, thus suffering and sorrow are a part of life. Pleasure is often synonymous with joy, gratification, and contentment while Christianity on the other hand is related with words such as laborious and cumbersome, and therefore non-enjoyable. The Christian right fears pleasure, especially sexual pleasure, which is seen as degrading, corrupting and tainted. Many Christians relate their own experiences with sex, specially those who descended into addictions and often sexual and domestic abuse before they found Christ, to building a movement that brings an external rigidity to cope with the chaos of human existence, which burdens them. They are not capable to trust their own impulses, their ability for self-restraint or judgment.
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Parents´involvement in their children English extra classes outside the school

Parents´involvement in their children English extra classes outside the school

According to the “curriculum guidelines” established by the Ministry of Education in 2006 students of fourth and fifth grade of primary school must accomplish the A2 level, according to the “Common European Framework”. Fourth and fifth grade students must reach specific competences in the four communicative skills. In listening, students must be able to understand and following teacher‟s instructions and also participate in the activities that teacher explain. Moreover, they must be able to recognize principal characters and events from the stories that teacher tells, identify how the characters feel according to the teacher tone of voice. Furthermore, they must be able to understand when a classmate or the teacher introduces himself or herself. Finally, they must be able to memorize some foreign songs. In reading, students must be able to identify the relationship between an image and a story, recognizing principal aspects and information about the places and characters from the story, following a sequence.
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Questioning the Rise of Gelatinous Zooplankton in the World´s Oceans

Questioning the Rise of Gelatinous Zooplankton in the World´s Oceans

Therefore, because the paleontological and historical records show mass occurrences of gelatinous Zooplankton in the scientific literature, we sought to determine the origins of the mode[r]

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Empire, sovereignty, and justice in Francisco de Vitoria's international thought : a re interpretation of de Indis (1532) = Imperio, soberanía y justicia en el pensamiento internacionalista de Francisco de Vitoria : una re interpretación de de Indis (1532

Empire, sovereignty, and justice in Francisco de Vitoria's international thought : a re interpretation of de Indis (1532) = Imperio, soberanía y justicia en el pensamiento internacionalista de Francisco de Vitoria : una re interpretación de de Indis (1532)

To this effect, I argue that there are three substantive arguments underpinning De Indis each of which correspond to three segments of the text itself: 1) the idea of the sover- eignty and legitimacy of non-European or non-Christian states, and their status as equals by nature whose sovereignty is to be acknowledged; 2) the notion that there are ethical limits to be placed on the use of force and on the recourse to war, as well as a denial of empire as a legitimate form of governance or communication between communities; and 3) the question of the order of justice, and principles that may be deduced from it, as the order that properly regulates relations between all communities. In this respect, I am expounding Vitoria’s doctrine of international relations in a manner not expressed in any of the current literature. Such an exposition, furthermore, is at variance with others that have seen Vitoria as an apologist of empire. The argument offered here also denies the assertion that Vitoria had developed no notion of sovereignty; that he had no conception of who the members of international society were; and that he did not believe that relations between Christians and non-Christians could be articulated on a common basis. These, I argue, are the salient themes emerging from a close reading of Vitoria’s lecture on the Indies, which are linked, both in De Indis and other lectures, to state power, how it should be used, and for what purposes.
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Essays on the formation of social networks from a game theoritical approach

Essays on the formation of social networks from a game theoritical approach

Frigyes Karinthy published in 1929 a short story titled ”Chains” that informally analyzed a problem that would captivate future generations of mathematicians, soci- ologists, physicists and economists within the field of network theory. The Hungarian author believed that, due to technological advances in communications and travel, the modern world was shrinking because social networks could grow larger and span greater distances. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that we are all connected and in- fluenced by others and that social networks play a key role in many different settings. The pioneer in the formal study of networks was another distinguished Hungarian: the extraordinarily prolific mathematician Paul Erd¨ os. His work provided the starting point for practically all social-science studies in this area. In the 1950’s, Erd¨ os and his colleague Alfred R´ enyi defined a graph as a series of points connected by lines. This abstract entity can represent many different things. As Philip Ball announces in ”Critical Mass”, if points are cities and lines are roads, it is easy to comprehend the rules of the graph: it is like a map. The distances and directions of roads reflect those in geographical reality. But if points are people and lines represent social relationships among them, a two-dimensional graph cannot satisfy the same interpretation rules.
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TítuloThe poetics of ressentiment  Case: Timo K  Mukka's novel Laulu Spirjan Lapsista   The Song of Sipirja's Children

TítuloThe poetics of ressentiment Case: Timo K Mukka's novel Laulu Spirjan Lapsista The Song of Sipirja's Children

4. GIRARD: RESSENTIMENT, JEALOUSLY AND THE SCAPEGOAT MECHANISMS René Girard says in his studies Decit, Desire & the Novell and in Job. The Victim of his People that the concepts which belong in the field of ressentiment, like jealousy, envy and hate impli- cates always the presence of the third part, which is really the target of these feelings. Girard emphases that jealous or envious person actually enjoys about the feeling of competition. This explains why the same persons are always jealous ones. (Girard 1980: 11-12) When a person is ressentimental he enjoys the passionate and vital feeling of competition. in jealousy he can also be in the ivory tower of solitude experience, he is proud of his sufferings in this twisted way. it is pure vanity. When sipirja’s writer is jealous to ulla’s lover he feels this ressentimental pas- sion and powerless rage which raises him above ordinary people. He is listening love making through the wall and enjoying his own suffering (he is not just hearing, he is listening).
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ESTADO MUNDIAL DE LA INFANCIA 2003

ESTADO MUNDIAL DE LA INFANCIA 2003

In the run-up to the Special Session, the Global Movement for Children brought together adults, adolescents and children; campaigners, counsellors and crusaders for child rights: those who cared about forging a world fit for children. While recognizing that children and adolescents cannot be expected to challenge the world’s misplaced priorities on their own, this energetic alliance embraced the idea that the job could not be done by adults without the passion and perspectives of children. The primary focus of the Global Movement for Children was a major worldwide campaign called ‘Say Yes for Children’, launched at events around the world beginning in March 2001. Adults and children alike were asked to say ‘Yes’ to a pledge – “I believe that all children should be free to grow in health, peace and dignity” – and to support the Global Movement’s 10-point agenda for action. They were then asked to identify the three action priorities that they considered most important. The participation involved in a campaign of such a mass scale is bound to be limited. But this element of interac- tivity – whether over the Internet or on widely distributed paper forms – undoubtedly helped draw both children and adults into the process. By the time the ‘Say Yes’ pledges were pre- sented to Nelson Mandela and Graça Machel at the Children’s Forum in New York in May 2002, the total number – far exceeding expectations – stood at nearly 95 million, including 20 million from China and a remarkable 16 million (one in four of the population) from Turkey. With the overwhelming number of pledges coming from children, the three issues identified as most urgent were education, discrimination and poverty.
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The forgotten children - Confederación Salud Mental España

The forgotten children - Confederación Salud Mental España

Dr Joanne Barton is a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists in North Staffordshire, U.K. Prior to this she was Senior Lecturer at the University of Glasgow where she was head of a specialist clinical service for children and young people with ADHD. Dr Barton completed her post- graduate training in general adult psychiatry in Edinburgh before moving to Glasgow as Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Her research in- terests include parenting, parental mental illness, ADHD and service evalu- ation. Her PhD examines the role of maternal expressed emotion in disrup- tive behaviour. She has developed an intervention programme for preschool hyperactivity (The Preschool Overactivity Programme) and chaired the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) working group on Attention Deficit and Hyperkinetic Disorders in chil- dren and young people. She has also been a principal investigator in clinical trials of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in the treatment of ADHD. Recent work in collaboration with colleagues from adult mental health has included an exploration of children’s experience of parental mental illness. Dr Barton is co-editor of “Modern Management of Perinatal Psychiatric Disorders” published in April 2009.
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THE STATE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD: THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY

THE STATE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD: THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY

Progress in reducing hunger reflects country and regional specificities in terms of economic conditions, infrastructure, the organization of food production, the presence of social provisions and political and institutional stability. In Western Asia, the worsening undernourishment trend appears to be mostly related to food price inflation and political instability. In Northern Africa, where progress has been slow, the same factors are relevant. Lack of natural resources, especially good-quality cropland and renewable water resources, also limit the regions’ food production potential. Meeting the food needs of these regions’ rapidly growing populations has been possible only through importing large quantities of cereals. Some of these cereal imports are financed by petroleum exports; simply put, these regions export hydrocarbons and import carbohydrates to ensure their food security. Both food and energy are made more affordable domestically through large, untargeted subsidies.
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Conceptualization of the experience of the individual in the educational space in the light of scientific rationality as a problem of professional identity in global and sociocultural dynamics

Conceptualization of the experience of the individual in the educational space in the light of scientific rationality as a problem of professional identity in global and sociocultural dynamics

consists of the human society and the objective world, where the production activity of people unfolds [3, p. 117]. Thus, the way of thinking exists independently of the individual. But in this case, the transfer of the way of thinking is the task of learning. But since the transfer of the way of thinking fell out of the tasks of learning in its completely direct and immediate formulation, the problem of the content of education can be stumped with a sharp increase in the amount of information reported at the present stage. The teacher’s responsibility as a carrier of scientific rationality, which primarily defines the universal meaning of human activity in the transmission of social experience and knowledge, is growing. Of course, the teacher's personality is determined not so much by pedagogical theory, as by other cultural and social determinants, the influence of which occurs unconsciously for himself/herself. Naturally, under certain conditions, the teacher is able to selectively and critically treat these determinants, but the economic situation of recent years, in particular, aggravates the crisis in the quality and relevance of secondary education to a certain extent. For the most part, future applicants are taught not in line with the conceptual core of the philosophy of pedagogy, that is, teaching of the formation of pedagogical idea expressing the essence of education; our teachers, who are in economic need, simply do not have the time and mental strength to do so. And the essence of this idea, according to Hegel, is in such a transformation of the child's soul, as a result of which the child shall be brought to the knowledge and the desire, to the assimilation of the universal. And the majority of applicants do not have the
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