We have chosen 1900 as the other end ofthe time-span covered by our corpus due to no less important reasons. Facts such as the discovery ofthe electron by J.J. Thompson in 1896, the crisis ofthe grounds of mechanical physics announced by Mach, Kirchhoff or Bolzmann in this same year, Planck’s announcement of quantum mechanics, or Einstein’s publication of a paper proposing what is today called the Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, must be viewed as milestones in the history ofScience that probably established a turning point similar to the one which took place three centuries earlier. Besides, at the 1897 International Congress of Mathematics, Thomas Huxley outlined a new scientific style. From that moment onwards, scientific discourse changed dramatically again.
Women are seldom mentioned in books about the History ofScience or in Biographical Dictionaries. Public female activity was not common in certain spheres of life and publishing in general, but publishing works on Philosophy in particular, was one of these uncommon activities. However, it must be admitted that other fields ofscience were regarded as even more masculine than philosophy. Women’s work was often not taken seriously (Herrero, 2007, p. 75). Excluded from official science, the means women had to learn was by reading, by listening to other women, from mothers to daughters and, occasionally, by listening to men. Female authorship is difficult to establish. In certain fields of knowledge such as Astronomy, women did not sign their own works, as is the case ofthe Catalogue of Stars by German female astronomers in the seventeenth century. Although women participated intensively in science, their access to study and scientific work was limited to the role of mere assistants. Some scientific institutions, in fact, did not admit the first women until the second half ofthe twentieth century.
The number of words per genre and discipline are externally determined, that is, conditioned by the trends ofthe period that led to the use of particular text-types, or simply because female writers tended to find themselves pushed towards certain formats. Similarly, society accepted more readily that women should write about topics seen as appropriate to their sex, such as flowers and birds (Life Sciences), travel (History) but not constellations or planets (Astronomy) which required the observation ofthe night sky. As noted in Moskowich (2012), Female authorship, then, is very difficult to establish. On some occasions women did not sign their own works, as is the case ofthe Catalogue of Stars by German female astronomers in the seventeenth century. Indeed, it was seen as indecorous for women to observe the sky at night (Herrero 2007: 82). And although women participated intensively in the field of astronomy from the time ofthe Copernican revolution, their access to study and scientific work was limited to the role of mere assistants (p. 46).
The second variable used to present our material is that of genre. The present classification of genres in the CC includes 8 different categories: Treatise, Letter, Lecture, Essay, Textbook, Article, Dialogue and Other. However, our material contains no examples of Article or Dialogue. This is so, first, because the samples of these genres had no preface and were therefore disregarded, and second, because no Dialogues were among the samples by women in the CC. As Graph 3, below, makes clear, Treatise is the genre with the highest number of words, both in prefaces and main texts. Letter is second, although the proportion of words in prefaces and main texts here is unbalanced as compared with some ofthe other genres. The third genre is Textbook, with the split of words into prefaces and main texts reversed in comparison to that in Letter. Obviously, textbooks tend to require longer introductions, as a means of explaining students the purpose and possible use ofthe works in question. The three remaining genres are more or less evenly distributed as regards the number of words in front matter and main texts. The issue of note here is the fact that Lectures are the genre with the highest number of words in their prefaces. The reason for this could be that these lectures were first delivered in public and were subsequently published, and hence needed some kind of introductory material when offered to the readers.
In the current study, we will be using the same material. However, in order to go a step further, we will explore the syntagmatic relations of these two adverbs and their accompanying modal verbs. Although it is widely assumed that scientificEnglish has shifted from author-centered to object-centered (Atkinson 1998), the presumably objective nature ofscientific discourse has in fact been questioned, with the use of hedging (Hyland 1998) and other elements expressing stance (Moskowich and Crespo 2014; Alonso Almeida and Inés 2016; Dossena 2017) cited as evidence here. In the present study, we will continue our description of late Modern Englishscientificwriting by assessing how the modal verbs accompanying these stance adverbs can modulate the expression of tentativeness. Perhaps and possibly both indicate an author’s desire to show tentativeness and uncertainty, as well as being devices that seek the reading public’s involvement in the presentation of content (Seoane Posse 2016). The use of stance adverbs of this kind not only shows authorial presence, but also demonstrates a covert interaction with the reader, which makes these texts more engaging for the latter.
As mentioned above, another linguistic feature studied was the morphological process undergone by the nouns involved in our CPs. The two morphological processes used, conversion and derivation, yielded different results, as shown below in Table 7. Most tokens ofthe nouns involved in CPs in our corpus are isomorphic (58.2% to 41.8%). Our results coincide with Kytö’s (1999: 174– 175) for the period 1500–1710 with the Helsinki Corpus. She pointed out that comparing the results ofthe most common light verbs found in English make and have co-occurred with isomorphic nouns less frequently than take and do. Nevertheless, she concludes that the nouns recorded in her study were predomi- nantly isomorphic, as it is the case in our survey. Conversely, in Lareo (forth- coming b) the results obtained with a 19 th century selection ofthe CC, contain- ing texts of Astronomy and Mathematics, derivation was by far more common (30.5 to 69.4). So, further research should be done to prove whether or not the morphological processes undergone by the nouns involved in make-complex predicates have a direct relation to the period or to the category under survey. Table 7: Morphological process results
Since every scientific field has its own writing traditions and restrictions, we have decided to compile different sub-corpora forming theCoruñaCorpusofEnglishScientificWriting (CC). Each of them contains samples of texts published between 1700 and 1900 which correspond to a different scientific discipline. Overlapping of disciplines constitutes a basic difficulty in the se- lection of representative samples ofscientific language, mainly when it is not present-day science we are dealing with. Instead of designing our own taxonomy of disciplines when compilingthe CC, we resorted to the one published by UNESCO  as a starting point. The first sub-corpus compiled was CETA, CorpusofEnglish Texts on Astronomy. The second was CEPhiT, CorpusofEnglish Philosophy Texts and the third is the one we are presenting here, CHET, Corpusof Historical English Texts.
nonetheless, notwithstanding, otherwise, rather, similarly, therefore, thus, viz, in comparison, in contrast, in particular, in addition, in conclusion, in consequence, in sum, in summary, in any event, in any case, in other words, for example, for instance, by contrast, by comparison, as a result, as a consequence, on the contrary, on the other hand, that is
not always under this name: evaluation (Hunston 1994), evidentiality (Chafe 1986), affect (Ochs 1989) or hedge (Hyland 1998) were tags also used by authors to refer to the same concept as Alonso-Almeida – Vázquez (2010: 1173) have put it. In the case ofthescientific register its analysis has been restricted to certain fields and disciplines (Salager-Meyer 1994; Hyland 1998, 1999, 2005; Al-Saaidi 2010; Alonso-Almeida 2012a, 2012b). The analysis of stance has not only yielded present-day accounts of its function and representation but also some diachronic works have attempted to trace historical changes across registers (Biber 2004; Busse 2010; Gray – Biber – Hiltunen 2011). Stance is one ofthe elements that forms a model of interaction between participants in academic discourse (Hyland 2005). As Hyland (2005: 173) notes, “writers seek to offer a credible representation of themselves and their work by claiming solidarity with readers, evaluating their material and acknowledging alternative views”. This is central to the construction of persuasive argumentation and thus to the success ofscientific communication. Stance can be manifested by means of lexical categories or constructions (Downing – Locke 2002: 74), including adverbs. Indeed, adverbs have been widely acknowledged among the primary lexical markers of stance in English (Biber – Finegan 1988: 1; Quirk et al. 1985; Biber et al. 1999; Huddleston – Pullum 2002), and they will serve as the focus for the current paper.
From the moment at which the so-called Scientific Revolution erupted, objectivity was the main goal of all scientists. The experimental or scientific method favoured this search for objectivity, in that experiments were now to be described with sufficient precision that anyone could reproduce them and thus seek to confirm the findings. This form of making science also had an inevitable consequence on the way science was written. However, studies on discourse tend to view the second part ofthe eighteenth century as a period of reaction to this focus on objectivity and also as a reaction to Rationalism. It seems there is a continued shift, not only in scientificwriting but in discourse in general, that goes from this object-centred world to a reality that is more deeply related to the inner self of authors (Adamson), such a shift finally giving rise to the Romantic Movement. Also, from the middle ofthe century onwards, the relation between language and its users began to be taken into considera- tion by authors such as Harris (1751) and Beattie (1783). Whereas it is true that certain linguistic features and constructions were associated with science during the eighteenth century, it is worth noting that other features denoting interpersonal interaction between writer and reader can also be detected in eighteenth-century scientificwriting (Crespo; Alonso Almeida, “Sentential Evidential” and “An analysis”; Moskowich).
Thus, the time span selected follows unambiguous motives. In general, the late Modern English period is characterised by antagonistic tendencies regarding language. A movement that purported the customary use of Latin in scientific texts coexisted with another that suggested that disseminating knowledge in the vernacular would undoubtedly reach a wider audience. Also, to make matters worse a third movement intended to create a universal scientific language from scratch. Though the date for the vernacularisation ofscience has been set as early as 1375 (Taavitsainen & Pahta 2004), it is nonetheless certain that we cannot talk about an outburst of texts written in English until the turn ofthe seventeenth century, with a consolidation in the eighteenth, since even the most important promoters ofthescientific revolution published their works in Latin in the first place (Bacon’s Novum Organum, Newton’s Principia). In sum, the eighteenth century seems, therefore, a fairly reasonable moment in the history oftheEnglish language to begin an approach to the morphological devices employed in the period to coin new linguistic elements. We must bear in mind, however, that changes happening in the eighteenth century are not likely to be largely observed until the following century, especially those closer to the turn ofthe century. Future studies using the nineteenth century section oftheCoruñaCorpus will definitely address this issue.
First, learners’ perspective ofthe problem was gathered through a group survey, using an instrument which consisted of a questionnaire of 27 closed-ended questions (see Appendix 3), applied at the middle ofthe course period, for a period of two and a half weeks. The survey would help to narrow down specific difficulties encountered by the group of learners, shedding lights on learners’ problems in such process. Consequently, the survey was divided into four sections. The first section included questions related to general aspects that explored attitudes towards English and writing tasks in the course. The second section included questions that aimed at identify before writing actions, which dealt with small steps the student does or does not follow before writing. The third section included questions aiming at while writing actions in order to explore what the student does at the time ofwriting an assignment. The final section was “after writing actions”, that dealt with actions students might do or not after they had finished their written assignments. Tomal (2003), refers to surveys as one ofthe most common and advantageous methods used in action research, given that they allow to gather answers, which mostly relate to opinions or beliefs and facts. Unlike focus groups, a survey would permit to collect answers of most learners in an entire classroom of students. In terms of
El análisis de la distribución de los artículos publicados en las revistas queda recogido en la tabla 3, reflejando de forma explícita las que tienen cinco o más publicaciones cuyo tópico central sea el balonmano. El ranking de las 10 revistas con más trabajos publicados lo encabenzan la revista Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research y Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sports, con 23 artículos (6,28 %). A continuación está la publicación Perceptual and Motor Skills, con 17 trabajos (4,64 %); Journal of Sports Sciences con 16 artículos (4,37 %); Collegium Antropologicum e International Journal of Sport Medicine, con 14 publicaciones (3,82 %); Journal of Human Kinetics, con 10 artículos (2,73 %); Journal of Human Movement Studies, 9 publicaciones (2,45 %); Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 8 trabajos (2,18 %) y American journal of sports medicine, con 7 artículos (1,91 %).
In the classrooms of Early Childhood Education many questions arise about the students' closest environment. such as how something floats in the water, why two objects are attracted, why it is done at night or the air has strength, etc. With TheScience Week, it is intended that children, from an early age, acquire scientific knowledge through their own experience, researching, considering ideas, reflecting, etc. It is important that they interact with objects, manipulating them to acquire information from them. Similarly, it is important to develop the curiosity and interest of these students towards the world around them, providing them with activities and experiences that lead them to want to know more, as well as to the enjoyment of carrying out scientific experiments.
The present work is an investigation which objective was to establish the use of WhatsApp as a teaching tool to enhance thewriting skills on 23 students of tenth basic year at Unidad Educativa Alfa y Omega, in Santa Elena Province, Ecuador. The investigational group was allowed to use WhatsApp messenger Application in a smart device, whose principal characteristics are the usefulness of groups chatting, personal chatting sharing that allowed enhancing thewriting skills on students through the practice of interactive activities, lectures and podcast. For the development of this research it was required to apply the qualitative method by implementing techniques such as: Focus group, observation and interviews. The results of these analysis demonstrated that the application of mobile learning technique in a smart device (WhatsApp), generate significant effects on writing skills of students such as the improvement ofwriting skill. These outcomes suggest that teachers should start changing traditional ways of teaching English specifically in thewriting training sessions and explore new methods to improve production on students.
Discoveries in Chemistry Robert Boyle pio- neered the use ofthescientific method in chemistry. He is considered the founder of modern chemistry. In a book called The Sceptical Chymist (1661), Boyle challenged Aristotle’s idea that the physical world consisted of four elements—earth, air, fire, and water. Instead, Boyle proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways. Boyle’s most famous contribution to chemistry is Boyle’s law. This law explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other.
that knowledge of natural reality is mediated by social circumstance, and this mediation requires empirical investigation. However, both of them were not intending to return to the absolute scepticism of David Hume. Neither are they trying to favour a kind of truth relativism. They sought to address some truth-questions ofscientific advancement by focusing on the social relations. Nevertheless, the most confusing issue of Kuhn’s view on objectivity is his insistence that the shared values such as accuracy, scope, etc are fixed and permanent features ofscience, while at the same time maintaining that these values can never determine the outcome ofscientific revolutions. It implies that the epistemic values ofscience cannot be given any rational justification. In other words, he denies any objective progress ofscience. Science, he maintains, never progressed by virtue of some shared and binding algorithm of choice. Probably, the problem of induction could have been solved if there had been any philosophical justification for the epistemic values ofscience. Therefore, as long as science has not produced an algorithm able to dictate rational, unanimous choice, scientists would have no alternative but to supply subjectively what the best current list of objective criteria still lacked.