Over a similar time-span, tourism in rural areas has grown, partly because of market forces, seeking different kinds of holiday, and partly as a result of government initiatives (Lane, 1991a; Weiler & Hall, 1992). This growth has been most noticeable in the countries of the developed world, where sophisticated economic diversification agencies have been hard at work promoting new uses for the countryside, influencing both potential providers of tourism facilities, and the markets forruraltourism through press and media contacts. Tourism is seen as an agent forrural economic re-generation and as a way of valorising conservation (Bramwell, 1990; Jamieson, 1990; Brown & Leblanc, 1992). The rural environment is, however, a very fragile one. It is easily either changed or damaged (or both) by rapid changes of any sort: tourism is a powerful agent for change. This is an important issue because of the role rural areas play in many nations as repositories of both natural and historical heritage. It is also important commercially. Surveys show that ‘rurality’ is a unique selling point for holidays in the countryside. Customers look for high quality and ‘unspoiled’ scenery, for peace, quiet, and, to some extent, solitude, andfor the personal attention which small-scale tourism enterprises can offer to their guests (Krippendorf, 1987; P.A. Cambridge Economic Consultants, 1987). Tourism growth can be an urbanising influence, which by destroying rurality (or the illusion of rurality), can induce the onset of the destructive Resort Cycle much discussed in tourism circles (Butler, 1980).
The CRC, by their dimension, represent disadvantaged areas where one can strive to implement sustainable management properly, upon their development. Rural communities are characterized by having human settlements of under 10,000 inhabitants: These represent 70% of the world’s population; however, in countries like Mexico, these rural communities may have fewer than 2,500 inhabitants . The main characteristics of these communities are that they depend on agriculture, cattle-raising, fishing, as well as transformation and merchandising of food supplies linked to a great cultural, social and economic variety . For this study, we conceptualized all those communities with less than 2,500 individuals as CRC with geographical conditions linked to ocean-ground interactions with socio-cultural and economical characteristics, whose appeal is auspicious for the developmentand uplift from tourism.
species, such as the vaquita . However, combined effects of the increased salinity resulting from the damming of the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico reduced its habitat, and incidences of bycatch in gillnets caused the population of vaquitas to decline, severely aggravating the survivability scenario of this unique species . As a conservation measure in 2005, the Official Journal of Federation (the Mexican government gazette for laws and legal notices) unveiled a polygon area of no fishing in the vaquita refuge , with the priority of avoiding incidental mortality events. This further reduced fishing area for local inhabitants. However, even after the implementation of these measures, the vaquita population decline did not stop; instead, it dropped dramatically to 150 in 2007 . Presently, there are 30 individuals left in the wild , making the situation extremely precarious; in fact, genetically there may be not enough biodiversity for survival, even if done so in captivity. Other authors, as well as ourselves and media, have warned that the vaquita is the most threatened cetacean worldwide, after the 2006 extinction of Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) a cetacean of China . This was the first large mammal to become extinct in modern times of which extinction is directly attributed to humans. It will be a severe embarrassment for Mexico if they fail to save the porpoise from extinction. The high priority to rescue the vaquita has induced the Federal Government to strengthen actions that require fishermen in this region to change their fishing gear or production activities to ensure the survival of the vaquita. In December 2007, a project of reconversion of fishing activities for other productive economic activities, such as tourism, which included the acquisition of fishing permits by the Mexican Ministry of Environment (SEMARNAT) in exchange for financial compensation. The action was intended to reduce fishing efforts, and thus shrink the numbers of incidental death by bycatch of the vaquita to zero. In this initial phase, 23 fishing permits were withdrawn from fishermen for financial compensation. In addition, on 7 March, 2008, the Federal Government agreed to invest $10 million to continue the conversion program.
The Ephesus area is considered to be one of the most important values of cultural tourism. It is one of the richest ancient cities in history formed by Greek and Roman cultures. Furthermore, it is one of the best examples of the ancient age, recognized by archaeologists and historians. The largest ancient theatre of Turkey and houses on the slopes with well -protected mosaics and frescoes, symbolizing the past, can be found in this area. In addition to this, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, “The Temple of Artemis” was built in Ephesus. Taking all these facts into consideration, the Ephesus area has been accepted as a symbol of history and culture (Eser, Dalgin and Ceken, 2013). One of the main ideas of sustainabletourism is based on the stance that tourism industry is responsible for the state of degradation of natural and cultural environments. Users of local resources are obliged to pay attention on conservation issues. In that respect, the potential of tour guides for minimizing negative impacts of tourism traffic is rarely perceived and used (Rabotic, 2010). Furthermore, even though tour guides are one of the most visible players in tourism industry but, to date little scholarly attention was given to tour guides and guiding profession, not to speak of the links that tour guides may have with sustainability of tourism (Hu, 2007). Tour guides are - particularly in the eyes of tourists - representatives and “ambassadors” of tourism destinations but they are also their “protectors”. Hence, they should be treated as one of the destination stakeholders and due to their direct and often intense contact with tourists, actively involved in the implementation of sustainabletourism (Rabotic, 2010). In this context, this study addresses the gap by promoting an understanding of how tour guides can assist to moving tourism in a sustainable direction. Additionally, this study aims to question valorization process of Ephesus Ancient City as one of the cultural heritage sites of Turkey in relation with tour guiding practices. In doing so, several specific objectives are to be achieved: to understand sustainabletourismand the relation between sustainabletourismandtourism; to explore the roles and responsibilities of tour guides and their implications for the promotion of tourism sustainability and valorization process of cultural heritage sites such as Ephesus Ancient City; to examine to what extend tour guides exert their functions to support tourismdevelopment. By fulfilling these research objectives, it is expected to enhance the comprehension of the linkage between tour guides and sustainability, which is beneficial to both practical tour guide management and cultural site managers. In addition, this study will contribute to the literature on sustainabletourismdevelopmentand cultural heritage site valorization process.
Ecotourism is a relatively new concept and the existence of various definitions of it is not surprising. The key territorial players which we took into consideration in our research defined ecotourism as a type of tourism that directly related to the environment. As some of the experts noted, it could be confusing for local people to distinguish between ecotourism and nature-based tourism, as nature-based tourism relates to the environment as well. Local people and decision-makers can involve in the implementation of different ecotourism-related goals only it they understand the concept. Thus, the most important thing for ecotourism providers is first to define the concept of ecotourism. However, some of the interviewers believe that there is not a big difference between ecotourism and nature-based tourism, with the only real difference being that nature-based tourism concerns only the environment, while ecotourism is more about benefits to local people as well. They believed that there is no need to distinguish between these two concepts, and asserted that the most important thing is to work on the development of ecotourism in a sustainable way.
The Ribera del Duero, is located in the Autonomous Community of Castilha and León (Spain), despite having reputation of its wines all over the world, it needs an extra effort to value their natural areas. This paper proposes to restore the local tourism sector; joining sustainableruraltourism wineries integrate with nature and landscape. Using indicators and SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, oppor- tunities and threats) on the characterist- ics of wine tourism in Ribera del Duero, it is possible to propose a strategic plan- ning forsustainableruraltourism in this region. The suggested activities can lead to multiple benefi ts for economic, social, and environmentally developed; adding sustainableand local development to an all the winery region
While tourism authorities in Mexico are still focusing most of their efforts and resources on the promotion anddevelopment of mass tourism products such as all ‑inclusive resorts, Disneyland style parks and apartment towers (Clancy, 2001; Gómez, 2005), a growing segment of the tourist international market is demanding experiences which can provide them with a deep sense of personal transformation and awe ‑inspiring moments that go far beyond the conventional resort experience. (Cohen, 2005; CREST, 2015). Attractive cultural resources like shamanic indigenous traditions and their ancient medicines could be otherwise utilized not only to satisfy such demand, but to really diversify national tourism offer, thus increasing international competiveness, while promoting and achieving legitimate sustainabledevelopmentforruraland indigenous communities, just as Brazil, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador are already doing 7 (The Yucatan Times, 2015).
Ruraltourism, whilst it has the potential to provide significant benefits to rural communities, if managed poorly can negatively impact on the socio -economic sustainability of townships. Some of the most common negative aspects of rural tou- rism reported include traffic congestion, parking problems, rising house prices, disturbance and litter (Page J and Connell, 2006).. In order forruraltourism to be beneficial it needs to be mana- ged appropriately balancing the economic benefits with the conservation of the environment and the needs of the community (Philips, 2003) The small settlements of Val d’Orcia and San Gimignano in Siena province of Italy have leveraged locality very effectively to develop a thriving economy based on tourism, however both need to ensure that the tourism industry is sustainableand does not lead to the social and ecological degradation of the local area. Daylesford and Castlemaine in Victoria, Australia are also thriving tourist destinations. In each of the four settlements vibrant and successful industries were created using the strengths of the local area. It was shown that the creation of successful industries often in conjunction with other unique characteristics or assets of an area are a major draw card for tourists. Subsequently, the benefit to the rural settlement is twofold with both the industry and the tourism generated as a result of the industry contributing to the socio- -economic sustainability of the area (Horan et al., 2013). Other key factors for a successful tourist industry, which each of the case studies possessed included a unique identity and being renowned for this, development of robust industries and services often unique to the area, and innovative community and government promotion of the area.
Abstract: Creative locations become a key element of public regeneration strategiesand develop innovative ser vices based on intellectual proper ty. Some communities that have chosen to develop their tourism potential through the use of murals have im- proved their local development in a sustainable way, thus meeting a need expressed by tourists to create a more active experi- ence with an oppor tunity for the destination to embed experiences in the locality. In this study, which was carried out as par t of an international cooperation research project with Uruguay, we have explored whether Uruguayan mural ar t may be a way for Uruguayan towns to develop sustainable, creative, mural-based tourism. We used a qualitative content analysis, through in-person inter views, and found that its potential has not been exploited due to the lack of an organized public strategy.
The present work proposes to contribute to the formation of a more integral and proactive citizen by means of its implication in educational strategies in the university context related to the promotion of health and the good practices of sustainabledevelopment. It is theoretically based on health education oriented towards sustainabledevelopment as a fundamental toolfor the formation of a culture for health and be actively and productively involved in the promotion of health, in the implementation of good practices of sustainabledevelopment in educational institutions And communities. There are proposed teaching strategies to increase the students' motivation, their skills and knowledge of the problems that affect health and the environment. The developed research is part of the project Professional training for the management of sustainabledevelopment, which at the University of Las Tunas.
FONATUR’s vision of the time (1976) was shortsighted and economic-oriented with little involvement from the state (due to its recent constitution and ruling powers at the time) and with almost inexistent population. More recently new impulse to Baja California Sur as a tourism destination has been a result of the Escalera Nautica project also promoted by FONATUR. This project envisioned a series of marines along the Peninsula to attract recreational boaters to the Sea of Cortes. But Escalera Nautica has not advanced as originally planned and there have been much opposition due to the lack of environmental assessments and demand projections. However, FONATUR and State Government sees tourism as the key factor to bring economic growth to the region, the key challenge is to bring it under a sustainabledevelopment approach. Kayaking, hiking, snorkelling, scuba diving, whales watch, and many other activities are part of the tourism attractions of the region. Loreto depends heavily on tourism, focused mainly on sport fishing. Foreign visitors count around 60,000 per year mostly from North America 201 . A marine protected area constitutes the Loreto National Marine Park covering around 2,065 kilometres. Due to the unsuccessful attempts to make Loreto a major conventional tourism destination of the 70’s 80’s and 90’s, the trend was shifted to the sale of second homes to North Americans and Canadians. This market shows a remarkable potential for growth and Loreto is now marketed not only as an ecotourism destination but also as an excellent location for investing in second home 202 .
Many other institutions, ministries, associations and organizations could serve to open the doors to a new bigger world for many more members of our society, people from abroad to help become socially responsible personalities in an eco-friendly community by enjoying the urban landscape with all its advantages. How should the dots be connected? An educated college student or local resident goes to the countryside, establishes a ruraltourism homestead, with support from an association or government organization, constantly offers new services to guests from Lithuania or abroad.
CREHO´s Board of Director Annual Meeting was held in Panama; it was presided by the Environmental National Authority (ANAM); present were sub-regional representatives of the Contracting Parties of the Ramsar Convention in the Western Hemisphere: Central America (El Salvador), the Caribbean (Bahamas), North America (USA) and South America (Ecuador), the Ramsar Convention Secretariat, the Smithsonian Tropical Resarch Institute (representing research centers at the world level related to the issue) and IUCN (representing international organizations associated to the Ramsar Convention). During this meeting, the Board reiterated that training in wetlands through CREHO is a priority for the Americas; Panama, May 2006.
Currently, National Museums of Kenya is the Government CEPA coordinator and several Community Workshops on wetlands conservation have been held in various parts of the country to fulfill our role in wetland conservation awareness and CEPA coordination. These education and awareness tools are efforts towards creating more awareness. We have had success in our CEPA activities in both Ramsar wetlands and even smaller wetlands e.g. Ondiri swamp where now there exist a group “Friends of Ondiri“ who are rehabilitating the swamp and even in Manguo swamp among others (Macharia, Thenya & Ndiritu, 2010). Our regional museums also have education department which we use as our outlets in our outreach programmes.
much more susceptible to problems of adulteration and the introduction of low-quality drugs. The principal difficulties mentioned by the Member Countries include: lack of proper legislation; lack of a specific registration unit; registration by other government units not specialised in animal health; total or partial lack of infrastructure to carry out the necessary analytical testing for each type of compound; the impossibility of ensuring continuing control over the quality of antiparasitic agents; and the failure to link registration with the occurrence of resistance in the field. During the present decade, generic antiparasitic agents have come to stay. It is not difficult these days to find countries where the same active ingredient is marketed under more than 20 different trade names. Competition between different formulations is healthy, provided of course that quality is maintained (which does not mean only the correct concentration of the active ingredient). This situation and the lack of training among users increase the consumption of cheap and often low-quality drugs. Without doubt this is the great challenge facing countries which do not yet have the capability to control the toxicity, residues and efficacy of antiparasitic agents.
Tourism activities cause a big influence on water environment of island itself and the sea around the island. On the one hand, with more tourists and tourist infrastructures, the consumption of water is increasing gradually over the normal water supply capacity and results in the exhaustion of water resource. What’s more, with the drop of fresh water, seawater intrusion can cause a series of pollution. For example, Mallorca, as a popular destination, is facing the water supply problem generated by mass tourismand climatic change (Stephen et al. 2004). Buswell (2011) points out that in order to meet the demand of residents and tourists, over-extraction from aquifers has lower the water table, causing saline intrusion and salt water contamination on the coastal plain. Although various water management initiatives have been introduced during the last decade like the importation of water from the Spanish mainland, desalination plants, eco-tax etc., most of them are not effective because of the economical and political problem.
determined by forms of roominess in the municipality of Yopal, especially in areas of transition as ecotones territorial; is able to identify new and alternative strategiesfor articulation and local and regional development , as is the intervention of the transitional spaces, considered territorial ecotones with teleological systems and elements, as expressed Costs A. (2013): "Every system have a purpose, which is the suprasystem that is subject of which they form a part." (p. 53). This principle allows for the articulation of the territory. Therefore, the situation that emerges from these types of population mobility gives rise to emerging proposals in regard to systems of habitability multicultural with support in alternatividades of human developmentand production of associative to interact with the oil production, the potential uses of the prairie soil and titrate as ecotone disarticulated spaces of the territory.
To design urban patterns appropriate for “sustainable mobility” is a key element for this new approach. In this context mobility is defined as the number of accessible destinations within the shortest possible time while covering the shortest possible distance (different to “fossil mobility” defined as the ability to cover increasing distances). Considering the limited reserves of fossil fuels and the long lifetime of urban structure and transport infrastructure, mobility needs to overcome the dependence of fossil fuels and rely more on public transport, cyclists and pedestrians, to make it sustainableand the urban pattern needs to be developed appropriately for these modes.
population was living in cities, for the first time in human history. In response, urban workers are seeking to spend their leisure time in areas where they can “reconnect with nature.” Hiking, camping, wildlife viewing, snorkeling and SCUBA holidays (all trending upward) offer a chance to escape from urban environments and busy work lives. Some urbanites, particularly younger ones, turn to active outdoor adventure travel to meet the need to reconnect with nature while maintaining their fast-paced lifestyle.