Ensayo de Peso Específico y Peso Unitario

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UNIVERSIDAD “SEÑOR DE SIPAN” - CHICLAYO UNIVERSIDAD “SEÑOR DE SIPAN” - CHICLAYO

Facultad de Ingenie!a

Facultad de Ingenie!a

Facultad de Ingenie!a Facultad de Ingenie!a

E"cuela P#$e"i#nal de Ingenie!a Ci%il

E"cuela P#$e"i#nal de Ingenie!a Ci%il

E"cuela P#$e"i#nal de Ingenie!a Ci%il E"cuela P#$e"i#nal de Ingenie!a Ci%il

&E'A &E'A &E'A &E'A (((( I INNFFOORR''E E DDE E PPRRAACC&&IICCA A DDEE I INNFFOORR''E E DDE E PPRRAACC&&IICCA A DDEE LA)ORA&ORIO LA)ORA&ORIO LA)ORA&ORIO LA)ORA&ORIO NO')RE DEL CURSO

NO')RE DEL CURSO

NO')RE DEL CURSO

NO')RE DEL CURSO ((((

TECNOLOGIA DE LOS MATERIALES

TECNOLOGIA DE LOS MATERIALES

TECNOLOGIA DE LOS MATERIALES TECNOLOGIA DE LOS MATERIALES

PROFESOR

PROFESOR

PROFESOR

PROFESOR ::::

Ing. CARLOS MONDRAGON CASTAÑEDA

Ing. CARLOS MONDRAGON CASTAÑEDA

Ing. CARLOS MONDRAGON CASTAÑEDA Ing. CARLOS MONDRAGON CASTAÑEDA

ALU'NO ALU'NO ALU'NO ALU'NO (((( CICLO CICLO CICLO CICLO (((( II II IIII AULA AULA AULA AULA (((( *+, *+, *+, *+, Pimentel Pimentel Pimentel Pimentel – 2012 – 2012 – 2012 – 2012

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PRAC&ICA DE PESO ESPECIFICO

PRAC&ICA DE PESO ESPECIFICO

PRAC&ICA DE PESO ESPECIFICO PRAC&ICA DE PESO ESPECIFICO

INTRODUCCION

INTRODUCCION

INTRODUCCION

INTRODUCCION

Lo !elo e "l#i$i"#n en $!n"i%n &e ! "om'o(t#miento) l# "#(#"te(i*#"i%n Lo !elo e "l#i$i"#n en $!n"i%n &e ! "om'o(t#miento) l# "#(#"te(i*#"i%n 'o

'o( ( g(g(#n#n!l!lomometet(+(+# # nono  'e'e(mi(mite te &e&etete(m(minin#( #( lolo  &i&i$e$e(e(entnte e t#t#m#m#,o,o  &e &e lolo #g

#g(e(eg#g#&o&o  '('(eeenentete  en en !n!n# # m!m!eet(t(# # &e &e m#m#tete(i(i#l#l) ) - - '#'#(# (# e$e$e"e"toto  &e&e #'li"#ili&#& &e l# no(m# IN/ E22) tom#(emo "omo (e$e(en"i# ni"#mente #'li"#ili&#& &e l# no(m# IN/ E22) tom#(emo "omo (e$e(en"i# ni"#mente lo

lo #g(#g(eg#eg#&o &o g(!g(!eoeo) ) #3#3!el!ello lo 3!e 3!e &e &e #"!#"!e(&e(&o o #l #l iitemtem# # !ni!ni$i"$i"#&o #&o &e&e "l#i$i"#"i%n 4SUCS5 tienen !n t#m#,o &e '#(t+"!l# ig!#l o m#-o( # 6.78mm. "l#i$i"#"i%n 4SUCS5 tienen !n t#m#,o &e '#(t+"!l# ig!#l o m#-o( # 6.78mm. Lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo on !n ti'o "#(#"te(+ti"o &e !elo g(#n!l#() 'o( t#l Lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo on !n ti'o "#(#"te(+ti"o &e !elo g(#n!l#() 'o( t#l (#*%n) e ne"e#(io 9#"e( !n# "oni&e(#"ione '(ei# #"e("# &el !elo 3!e (#*%n) e ne"e#(io 9#"e( !n# "oni&e(#"ione '(ei# #"e("# &el !elo 3!e no $#"ilit#(#n el enten&imiento &e '(o'ie&#&e $!n&#ment#le #'li"#le en no $#"ilit#(#n el enten&imiento &e '(o'ie&#&e $!n&#ment#le #'li"#le en &i"9o m;to&o &e en#-o.

&i"9o m;to&o &e en#-o.

El !elo &ent(o &e ! "om'le<# "om'oi"i%n &e m#te(i# oli&#) g#eo# El !elo &ent(o &e ! "om'le<# "om'oi"i%n &e m#te(i# oli&#) g#eo# -li3!i&#) 'oee inte(#""ione $+i"o 3!+mi"# en ! inte(io() &e et# $o(m#) l# li3!i&#) 'oee inte(#""ione $+i"o 3!+mi"# en ! inte(io() &e et# $o(m#) l# '(o'o("ione (el#ti# ent(e el 'eo 4$#e g(#im;t(i"#5 - el ol!men 4$#e '(o'o("ione (el#ti# ent(e el 'eo 4$#e g(#im;t(i"#5 - el ol!men 4$#e ol!m;t(i"#5 &ete(min#n !n# e(ie &e '(o'ie&#&e $+i"#= #lg!n# &e ell#) ol!m;t(i"#5 &ete(min#n !n# e(ie &e '(o'ie&#&e $+i"#= #lg!n# &e ell#) ##&# en l# &it(i!"i%n &e ! '#(t+"!l# - ! "onteni&o &e #g!#) 3!e ##&# en l# &it(i!"i%n &e ! '#(t+"!l# - ! "onteni&o &e #g!#) 3!e !gie(en "ie(to ti'o &e "om'o(t#miento geot;"ni"o) e el "#o &el Peo !gie(en "ie(to ti'o &e "om'o(t#miento geot;"ni"o) e el "#o &el Peo E'

E'e"ie"i$i"$i"o o 4G5 4G5 - - l# l# AAo(o("i%"i%n n 4S54S5) ) '(o'(o'ie'ie&#&&#&e e 3!e 3!e #!n#!n3!e 3!e (el(el#"i#"ion#on#&#&# g(#im;t(i"#mente) l# #n#li*#(emo &e m#ne(#

g(#im;t(i"#mente) l# #n#li*#(emo &e m#ne(# in&e'en&iente.in&e'en&iente.

L# inte(#""i%n &e l# $#e &e lo #g(eg#&o "omo m!et(# &e !elo 3!e on) L# inte(#""i%n &e l# $#e &e lo #g(eg#&o "omo m!et(# &e !elo 3!e on) in"l!-e '(o'ie&#&e n#t!(#le "!#nti$i"#le t#le "omo el 'eo - el ol!men) in"l!-e '(o'ie&#&e n#t!(#le "!#nti$i"#le t#le "omo el 'eo - el ol!men) me&ile t#nto en "#&# !n# &e ! $#e) "omo &e $o(m# tot#l. L# &eni&#& e me&ile t#nto en "#&# !n# &e ! $#e) "omo &e $o(m# tot#l. L# &eni&#& e el

el "o"on"n"e'e'to to $+$+ii"o "o 3!3!e e (e(el#l#"i"ionon# # eet#t#  &o&o  '('(o'o'ieie&#&#&e&e) ) - - $i$in#n#lmlmenente te l#l# "!

"!#n#ntiti$i$i"# "# "o"omo mo l# l# "#"#ntnti&i&#& #& &e &e m#m## # en en !n !n ool!l!memen n &e&etete(m(minin#&#&o. o. EnEn "one"!en"i#) en lo m#te(i#le g(#n!l#(e "on '#(t+"!l#

"one"!en"i#) en lo m#te(i#le g(#n!l#(e "on '#(t+"!l# g(!e#) l# &eni&#&g(!e#) l# &eni&#& &e

&ee e 9#9#"e"e( ( inin"l"l!!i%i%n n &e &e !!  "#"#(#(#"t"te(e(++titi"#"#  en en "#"#&# &# !n!n# # &e &e !!  $#$#ee)) "o

"om'm'o(o(t#t#mimienento to &e&etete(m(minin#&#&o o 'o'o( ( el el "o"ontnteneni&i&o o &e &e #g#g!# !# '('(eeenente te en en l#l# '#(t+"!l# &e e# mim# $#e. E #+ "omo l# "ien"i#) 9#"e men"i%n &e !n# '#(t+"!l# &e e# mim# $#e. E #+ "omo l# "ien"i#) 9#"e men"i%n &e !n# '(o'ie&#& $+i"#

'(o'ie&#& $+i"# "ono"i&# "omo "ono"i&# "omo 'eo !nit#(io) 'eo !nit#(io) 'eo &e !n'eo &e !n# m!et(# 3!e o# m!et(# 3!e o"!'#"!'# !n ol!men !nit#(io.

!n ol!men !nit#(io.

L# in"l!i%n en &i$e(ente '(o'o("ione &el #g!# en ! '#(t+"!l# oli&#) L# in"l!i%n en &i$e(ente '(o'o("ione &el #g!# en ! '#(t+"!l# oli&#) &ete(min#n ot(o 'eo !nit#(io t#le "omo) e"o

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>UNDAMENTOS TE?RICOS

>UNDAMENTOS TE?RICOS

Pe"# E"ec!$ic#

E el Co"iente ent(e el 'eo &e !n "!e('o - ! /ol!men. Se "#l"!l# &ii&ien&o el 'eo &e !n "!e('o o 'o("i%n &e m#te(i# ent(e el ol!men 3!e ;te o"!'#.

Donde:

= peso específico

= es el peso de la sustancia

= es el volumen que la sustancia ocupa = es la densidad de la sustancia

= es la aceleración de la gravedad

Cono"i&o el "on"e'to &e 'eo !nit#(io) e "l#(o 3!e "!#l3!ie( ti'o &e m#te(i# 3!e o"!'e !n ol!men en el e'#"io 'oe# et# '(o'ie&#&. El #g!# "omo m#te(i# $l!i&#) en ! et#&o n#t!(#l - &#&# ! "#(#"te(+ti"# $+i"# tiene !n 'eo !nit#(io "!#nti$i"#&o "ono"i&o) l# '(een"i# n#t!(#l &el #g!# &ent(o &e l# &i$e(ente $#e &el !elo) olig# # et#le"e( !n# (el#"i%n !nie(#l ent(e lo 'eo !nit#(io "onteni&o &ent(o &e !n m#te(i#l - el #g!# 3!e 9#"e '#(te &e ell#) &e et# $o(m# e &# "#i&# #l "on"e'to &e Peo E'e"i$i"o 4G5. En "one"!en"i# el 'eo e'e"+$i"o &e !n #g(eg#&o g(!eo "o((e'on&e # l# (el#"i%n ent(e ! 'eo !nit#(io - el 'eo !nit#(io &el #g!#.

Como el 'eo e'e"i$i"o e !n "o"iente 4"#nti&#& #&imenion#l5) no e ot(# "o# 3!e l# (el#"i%n &e &o 'eo !nit#(io) enton"e el $!n&#mento &e et# '(o'ie&#& &e'en&e &e ! 'eo !nit#(io= e '(e"io i&enti$i"#( "ie(t# "#(#"te(+ti"# (el#"ion#&# "on en el 'eo !nit#(io 3!e m!et(#n in&i"io &el "om'o(t#miento &el #g(eg#&o "omo '#(te &e !n# et(!"t!(#= el 'eo !nit#(io et@ (el#"ion#&o "on l# "#nti&#& tot#l &e g(#no o '#(t+"!l# '(eente en !n# m!et(# 4en $!n"i%n &e l# 'o(oi&#&5 - l# "#nti&#& &e #g!# '(eente en lo #"io 4en $!n"i%n &e l# 9!me&#&5.

Lo !elo tienen '#(t+"!l# oli&# ent(e l# 3!e 9#- 9!e"o) - t#mi;n tiene #g!# 3!e llen# eto 9!e"o. L# '#(t+"!l# ent(#n en "ont#"to !n# "on ot(# en 'e3!e,# !'e($i"ie o me&i#nte "#'# li3!i&# #&o(i&#. C!#n&o l# '#(t+"!l# et@n #"omo&#&# !ni$o(memente) &e<#n&o #"io ent(e ell#) - #<o $!e(*# &e "om'#"t#"i%n) l# '#(t+"!l# oli&# tienen !n #lto g(#&o &e #"omo&o 4"om'#"i&#&5 - l# "#'#"i&#& &e &e$o(m#"i%n #<o "#(g# e(@ 'e3!e,#. L# #nte(io( #'li"#"i%n &el 'eo e'e"i$i"o) e enm#("# &ent(o &e l#

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me"@ni"# &e !elo "!#n&o e 9#l# &e &e$o(m#"ione en lo m#te(i#le e'!eto # $!e(*# &e "om'(ei%n.

L# #""i%n &e $!e(*# ete(n# o(e !n# m## &e !elo gene(# &e$o(m#"ione) # et# inte(#""i%n &e '#(t+"!l# gene(#&# e le &ee !m#( el e$e"to '(o&!"i&o 'o( el #g!#. L# 9omogenei&#& &e et# et(!"t!(# t(i$@i"# 4#i(e) #g!# - oli&o5) e !n $#"to( &ete(min#nte en l# me&i"i%n &e lo niele &e &e$o(m#"i%n.

No 9#- &!&# 3!e l# no(m# n#"ion#le #'li"#le #l !elo) on l# inte('(et#"i%n &e ot(# no(m# inte(n#"ion#le "omo lo on en el "#o &el 'eo e'e"+$i"o) ASTM C127) ITINTEC 600.010) ITINTEC 600.011) INTITEC 600.012 - NTP 600.021 - NTP 600.022. En "one"!en"i# el m;to&o &e en#-o ITINTEC 80.001) e !n# #'li"#"i%n # n!et(o '#+ i&;nti"# &e l# no(m# nom(#&#) #!n3!e &i$ie(#n en te(minolog+# - en l# m#ne(# &e e'li"#( lo "on"e'to) en een"i# el m;to&o &e en#-o e el mimo.

Ete en#-o) en lo 3!e e (e$ie(e # l# me&i&# '(@"ti"# &el 'eo e'e"+$i"o &e lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo) e m!et(# "omo !n# #'(oim#"i%n e'e(iment#l #l "on"e'to. P#(# "om'(en&e( en to&# ! eteni%n l# !tili&#& &e et# '(o'ie&#& 4'eo e'e"+$i"o5) e ne"e#(io '(o$!n&i*#( !n 'o"o m@ en lo '(in"i'io $+i"o en lo 3!e e ## el m;to&o !tili*#&o '#(# ! me&i&#. Lo m;to&o &e me&i&# &el 'eo e'e"+$i"o e ##n en el '(in"i'io &e A(3!+me&e I/) &e et# $o(m# el 'eo &el mine(#l en el #g!# e(@ ig!#l # 'eo &el m#te(i#l meno el em'!<e e<e("i&o 'o( el #g!#.

El 'eo e'e"+$i"o &el #g(eg#&o e el (e!lt#&o &e &ii&i( el 'eo &el #g(eg#&o 'o( el 'eo &el ol!men &e #g!# 3!e &e#lo<#. P#(# "#l"!l#( ete ltimo #lo() e mi&e el 'eo &el m#te(i#l en el #i(e - el 'eo &el m#te(i#l en el #g!#) -# 3!e el em'!<e e(@ ig!#l #l 'eo &el m#te(i#l meno el 'eo e<e("i&o 'o( el #g!#. El em'!<e '(o'o("ion#&o 'o( el $l!i&o e(@ m#-o( "!#nto m#-o( e# l# &eni&#& &el $l!i&o.

En et# "l#(i&#& e ##n ot(o ti'o &e m;to&o no &e meno( im'o(t#n"i#) 3!e !tili*#n l+3!i&o &eno. C!#nto m#-o( e# l# &eni&#& &el $l!i&o !tili*#&o) m#-o( e(@ el 'eo &el ol!men &e#lo<#&o.

Dent(o &el &e#((ollo &el en#-o) e &e"(ie !n# e(ie &e '(o"e&imiento en lo 3!e e (e#lt# l# im'o(t#n"i# &el "onteni&o &e #g!# en l# m!et(# &el #g(eg#&o) in&i"io &e lo 3!e e(@ n!et(o ig!iente "on"e'to # t(#t#() - te(min# "!#nti$i"#n&o el 'eo e'e"i$i"o me&i#nte l# (el#"i%n &e lo 'eo !nit#(io &el #g(eg#&o - el #g!# en &i$e(ente et#&o &e #t!(#"i%n &el m#te(i#l.

El #lo( oteni&o &el 'eo e'e"i$i"o) inte(iene en l# m#-o( '#(te &e lo "@l"!lo &e l# me"@ni"# &e !elo) in em#(go l# #'li"#ili&#& (e#l &e ete m;to&o &e en#-o e &# "on $ine &e "l#i$i"#"i%n) &ete(min#"i%n &e l# &eni&#& &e e3!ili(io &e !n !elo - "o((e""i%n &e l# &eni&#& en el te((eno 'o(  l# '(een"i# &e '#(t+"!l# &e t#m#,o g(!eo.

(5)

En lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo) l# #'li"#ili&#& e (e$le<# "on $!e(*# en el "on"(eto) ete m#te(i#l "onen"ion#l) em'le#&o en '#imento) e&i$i"io - en ot(# et(!"t!(#) 'oee !n 'eo !nit#(io 3!e #(+# &e'en&ien&o &e: l# "#nti&#& - &e l# &eni&#& (el#ti# &el #g(eg#&o g(!eo '(eente) l# "#nti&#& &el #i(e #t(#'#&o o in"l!i&o - &e lo "onteni&o &e #g!#. A&em@ &el "on"(eto "onen"ion#l) eite !n# #m'li# #(ie&#& &e ot(o "on"(eto '#(# 9#"e( $(ente # &ie(# ne"ei&#&e) "on"(eto gene(#&o # '#(ti( &e l# m#ni'!l#"i%n &e ! 'eo e'e"i$i"o) #(i#n&o &e&e "on"(eto #il#&o(e lige(o "on 'eo !nit#(io &e 260 Bgm) # "on"(eto 'e#&o "on 'eo !nit#(io &e 600 Bgm) 3!e e em'le#n '#(# (eiti( #lto e$!e(*o &e "om'(ei%n) e 'o( eo "o((e"to &e"i(  3!e en el "on"(eto # m#-o( 'eo !nit#(io m#-o( (eiten"i#.

 A!n3!e el 'eo e'e"+$i"o e !n# '(o'ie&#& $+i"# &e g(#n im'o(t#n"i# '(eente en to&o lo ti'o &e #g(eg#&o) ! "!#nti$i"#"i%n en #g(eg#&o g(!eo no (e'(eent# !n in&i"#tio "l#(o &e #lg!n# "!#li&#& e'e"i#l &el m#te(i#l. El en$o3!e '(#"ti"o 3!e e le '!e&e &#( # l# &eni&#& &el !elo) et@ "onteni&o en m#("o "on"e't!#le @i"o 3!e $#"ilit#n el enten&imiento &el "om'o(t#miento me"@ni"o &el !elo.

El 'eo e'e"i$i"o olo e !n# #(i#le 3!e 'e(mite en lo m#te(i#le i&enti$i"#(  ot(# #(i#le 4'(o'ie&#&e5 $!n&#ment#le #'li"#le) (el#"ion#&# "on l# "#nti&#& &e '#(t+"!l# &el !elo en !n ol!men &ete(min#&o.

A."#ci/n

Como lo 9#+#mo men"ion#&o) el #g!# &ent(o &e l# m## &e !elo e '#(te $!n&#ment#l &e ! "om'o(t#miento) '!e&e et#( '(eente en ! t(e $#e -gene(#( '(o'ie&#&e &ete(min#nte. Pe(o l# #o("i%n en t;(mino "olo3!i#le e l# "#'#"i&#& 3!e tiene !n m#te(i#l &e (etene( #g!#) L# #o("i%n e el #!mento en 'eo &e lo #g(eg#&o &ei&o #l #g!# en lo 'o(o &el m#te(i#F 'e(o) in in"l!i( el #g!# #&9e(i&# # l# !'e($i"ie ete(io( &e l# '#(t+"!l#) l# #o("i%n inte(#"t# # niel inte(no &e '#(t+"!l# - e e'(e# "omo !n 'o("ent#<e &el 'eo e"o.

E enton"e momento &e &etene(e - enten&e( el "om'o(t#miento &e #lg!n# '(o'ie&#&e $+i"# &el !elo - l# inte(#""i%n &e l# '#(t+"!l# # lo l#(go &e ! t(e $#e. L# 'o(oi&#& '(o'o("ion# el 'o("ent#<e &e #"io en !n# m!et(# &e !elo) 4el t#m#,o &e eto #"io e $!n&#ment#l en ete "on"e'to5) l# #t!(#"i%n e el 'o("ent#<e &e #g!# '(eente en eo #"io) Po( lo #nte(io() l# #o("i%n et# ineit#lemente (el#"ion#&#) "on lo #"io #l inte(io( &el m#te(i#l !"e'tile # e( llen#&o 'o( el #g!# '(eente - l# "#'#"i&#& &e (eten"i%n &e lo mimo.

Mient(# 3!e el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& (el#"ion# el 'eo &el #g!# "on el &el m#te(i#l e"o "onteni&o en !n# m!et(#) l# #t!(#"i%n m#("# el ol!men o"!'#&o 'o( eo 'eo '(eente en l# m!et(#) 'o( eo (e!lt# im'o(t#nte 9#"e( &itin"i%n ent(e to&o eto t;(mino.

(6)

El !elo e !n# "om'oi"i%n &e m#te(i#l 9omog;neo) e&iment#&o -et(#ti$i"#&o 3!e $o(m# l# "o(te*# te((et(e) "!#n&o e tiene !n# m!et(# &e !elo in it! o en l#o(#to(io) 'o&emo #$i(m#( 3!e et@ "om'!eto 'o(  '#(t+"!l# ete(n# - inte(n#. L# ete(n# on #3!ell# &i'!et# en l# !'e($i"ie en "ont#"to "on ot(# m##) &e et# $o(m# - #<o "on&i"ione &e 'e(me#ili&#& el #g!# e '!e&e #&9e(i( # et# !'e($i"ie ete(n#. Al inte(io(  "omo lo 9#+#mo &i"9o) l# '#(t+"!l# et@n &it(i!i&# en $#e) 'e(o en "#&# !n# &e e# $#e eiten #"io &i'!eto # e( o"!'#&o 'o( #g!# &e #"!e(&o #l niel &e #t!(#"i%n #l 3!e e# ometi&o) el 'eo &el #g!# en el !elo #(+# &e #"!e(&o # l# tem'e(#t!(# # l# 3!e et; ometi&# l# m!et(#) 9#-#miente n#t!(#le 3!e "one(#n el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#&) mient(# 3!e el "on"e'to &e m#te(i#l e"o) olo e otiene en l#o(#to(io. En "one"!en"i#) e "l#(o #9o(# enten&e( el 'o( 3!; e (el#"ion# # lo l#(go &el m;to&o &e en#-o) el t;(mino #t!(#&o "on !'e($i"ie e"# 4SSS5) lo 3!e "ontem'l# l# 'oiili&#& &e 3!e !n m#te(i#l '!e&# et#( #t!(#&o en ! inte(io( 'e(o e"o ete(io(mente. En !elo $ino) el "onteni&o &e #g!# et@ &i(e"t#mente (el#"ion#&o "on ! (eiten"i# #l "o(te - ! 'e(me#ili&#&) !n !elo #"tio "on #(i#"ione &e 9!me&#& m!et(# inet#ili&#& ol!m;t(i"#) e 'o( eo 3!e l# #"omo&#"i%n en m## &e lo $ino 'e(mite niele #lto &e #o("i%n) "#o '!nt!#l &e limo -#("ill#. En "om'#"t#"i%n) e 9#l# &e 9!me&#& %'tim#) # l# 9!me&#& &e m#-o( (en&imiento) "on l# "!#l l# &eni&#& &e !n m#te(i#l #l"#n*# # e(  m@im#) &e'en&ien&o el #lo( &e l# 9!me&#& %'tim# - &e l# ene(g+# &e "om'#"t#"i%n) e otiene l# e"elente &eni$i"#"i%n &e !n !elo.

L# #'li"#ili&#& &e et# no(m#) 'o( t(#t#(e &e #g(eg#&o g(!eo) et@ (el#"ion#&# #l ig!#l 3!e el 'eo e'e"i$i"o 9#"i# lo #g(eg#&o &el "on"(eto) -m@ #n en "on"(eto "on #lto niele &e 9!me&#&) e el "#o &el "on"(eto 9i&(@!li"o) en &on&e l# "#nti&#& &e #g!# 3!e e e#'o(# #l #i(e # !n# 9!me&#& (el#ti# &el 80 4el #g!# 'e(m#ne"e (eteni&# 9e(m;ti"#mente en 'o(o - no e e#'o(# #<o "on&i"ione no(m#le5 e &e #'(oim#&#mente 2 #  &el 'eo &el "on"(eto) &e'en&ien&o &el "onteni&o ini"i#l &e #g!# &el "on"(eto) &e l# "#(#"te(+ti"# &e #o("i%n &e lo #g(eg#&o) - &el t#m#,o &e l# et(!"t!(#. Lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo no tienen l# mim# "#'#"i&#& &e (eten"i%n 3!e tienen lo #g(eg#&o $ino) el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& 3!e #'o(t# !n #g(eg#&o g(!eo) e m+nimo $(ente # lo 3!e ne"eit# !n# me*"l# &e "on"(eto 9omog;neo) e 'o(  eo 3!e el #g!# - ! inte(#""i%n "on el "emento 4(el#"i%n #g!# "emento5 ent(# # <!g#( !n $#"to( &ete(min#nte &e l# '(o'ie&#&e &el mimo.

>in#lmente) 9emo #n#li*#&o l# 9!me&#& - el 'eo e'e"i$i"o &e lo !elo &e $o(m# gene(#l) '#(# lleg#( # !n# #'(oim#"i%n #l "om'o(t#miento en lo #g(eg#&o g(!eo= e &itinto #n#li*#( el "om'o(t#miento &e l# '#(t+"!l# $in# #l &e l# g(!e#) 'o( eo lo item# &e "l#i$i"#"i%n "e(ti$i"#n "omo "(ite(io $!n&#ment#le) el t#m#,o &e l# '#(t+"!l# - ! "onteni&o &e #g!#. Sin em#(go) e "l#(o 3!e #'#(te &e 'e(miti( i&enti$i"#( - (e$e(en"i#( ot(# #(i#le '(eente en gene(#l en l# me"@ni"# &e lo m#te(i#le 4!elo - "on"(eto5) el 'eo e'e"i$i"o - l# #o("i%n on '(o'ie&#&e m#ni'!l#le) i ien e tiene !n# m!et(# &e m#te(i#l g(!eo em'le#&o '#(# l# et(!"t!(# &e !n '#imento o

(7)

"omo #g(eg#&o &e !n "on"(eto) ! "#(#"te(+ti"# n#t!(#le &ete(min#(#n el g(#&o &e mo&i$i"#"i%n 3!e e teng# 3!e #'li"#( o(e ell#) '#(# el ene$i"io oli"it#&o.

Si en een"i# ete ti'o &e "om'!eto &e m#te(i# #l 3!e ll#m#mo !elo) # m#ne(# &e et(#to &# "oniten"i# # l# "o(te*# te((et(e - to&o lo 3!e en ell# 9#-= t#mi;n en een"i# et# $o(m# &e m#te(i# &ee (in&#( "om'o(t#miento imil#(e en ene$i"io &e lo "imiento &e l# 9!m#ni&#&. Solo el enten&imiento "(iti"o 3!e l# "ien"i# (in&# &e l# '(o'ie&#&e n#t!(#le &el !elo) 'e(miti(@ inte('(et#( el 'oten"i#l 3!e ete tiene en el '(o"eo &e "ont(!""i%n &el leg#&o l# "iili*#"i%nF.

C#ntenid# de agua

Composición del suelo.

El "onteni&o &e #g!# o "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& e l# "#nti&#& &e #g!# "onteni&# en !n m#te(i#l) t#l "omo el !elo 4l# 9!me&#& &el !elo5) l# (o"#) l# "e(@mi"# o l# m#&e(# me&i&# en #e # #n@lii ol!m;t(i"o o g(#im;t(i"o. Et# '(o'ie&#& e !tili*# en !n# #m'li# g#m# &e @(e# "ient+$i"# t;"ni"# -e e'(e# "omo !n# '(o'o("i%n 3!e '!e&e i( &e 0 4"om'let#mente -e"#5 9#t# el #lo( &e l# 'o(oi&#& &e lo m#te(i#le en el '!nto &e #t!(#"i%n.

El c#ntenid# %#lu01tic# de agua) H) e &e$ine m#tem@ti"#mente "omo:

&on&e V w  e el ol!men &e #g!# - V T  V s J V v  V s J V w J V a e el ol!men

tot#l 43!e e /!elo J /#g!# J /e'#"io #"+o5. El "onteni&o &e #g!# t#mi;n '!e&e

et#( ##&o en ! m## o 'eo)1 A+) el "onteni&o g(#im;t(i"o &e #g!# e

&e$ine "omo:

&on&e mw  e l# m## &e #g!# - mb 4o ms '#(# el !elo5 e l# m## &e m#te(i#l

(8)

P#(# "one(ti( &el "onteni&o g(#im;t(i"o &e #g!# #l "onteni&o ol!m;t(i"o) m!lti'li"#mo el "onteni&o g(#im;t(i"o 'o( l# g(#e&#& e'e"+$i"# &el m#te(i#l en (!to.

2ad# de "atuaci/n

En me"@ni"# &e !elo e ingenie(+# &el 'et(%leo) el t;(mino #t!(#"i%n &e #g!# o g(#&o &e #t!(#"i%n) Sw  e !tili*#) &e$ini&o "omo

&on&e K  V v   V T  e l# 'o(oi&#& - V v  e el ol!men &e #"+o o e'#"io 'o(oo.

Lo #lo(e &e Sw  '!e&en #(i#( &e&e 0 4e"o5 # 1 4#t!(#&o5. En (e#li&#&) Sw 

n!n"# lleg# # 0 o 1  e t(#t# &e i&e#li*#"ione &e !o en ingenie(+#.

C#ntenid# %#lu01tic# de agua n#0ali3ad#

El "onteni&o &e #g!# no(m#li*#&o) ) 4t#mi;n ll#m#&o #t!(#"i%n e$e"ti# o

Se5 e !n #lo( #&imenion#l &e$ini&o 'o( /#n Gen!"9ten2 "omo:

&on&e H e el "onteni&o ol!m;t(i"o &e #g!#= Hr   e el "onteni&o &e #g!#

(ei&!#l) &e$ini&o "omo el "onteni&o &e #g!# '#(# el 3!e el g(#&iente d H  dh

tien&e # "e(o= -) Hs e el "onteni&o &e #g!# #t!(#&#) 3!e e e3!i#lente # l#

'o(oi&#&) K.

'edici/n

'1t#d#" diect#"

El "onteni&o &e #g!# '!e&e me&i(e &i(e"t#mente !tili*#n&o !n ol!men "ono"i&o &e m#te(i#l - !n 9o(no &e e"#&o. El "onteni&o ol!m;t(i"o &e #g!#) H) e "#l"!l# !#n&o:

Donde:

mhum ymseco son las masas de la muestra antes y después del secado en el horno;

ρw es la densidad del agua; y

V b es el volumen de la muestra antes del secado.

P#(# lo m#te(i#le 3!e "#mi#n &e ol!men "on el "onteni&o &e #g!#) t#le "omo el "#(%n) el "onteni&o &e #g!#) u) e e'(e# en t;(mino &e m## &e

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Sin em#(go) l# geote"ni# eige 3!e el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& e e'(ee "omo !n 'o("ent#<e &el 'eo e"o &e l# m!et(# e &e"i(:  "onteni&o &e 9!me&#&  u  100 &on&e

P#(# l# m#&e(#) l# "onen"i%n e in$o(m#( o(e el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& en el 9o(no &e e"#&o 4e &e"i() l# m!et(# e e"# gene(#lmente en !n 9o(no # 108 g(#&o Celi! &!(#nte 26 9o(#5. En el e"#&o &e l# m#&e(#) ete e !n "on"e'to im'o(t#nte.

'1t#d#" de la.#at#i#

Ot(o m;to&o 3!e &ete(min#n el "onteni&o &e #g!# &e !n# m!et(# in"l!-en l# #lo(#"ione 3!+mi"# 4'o( e<em'lo) l# #lo(#"i%n &e #(l >i"9e( 5) l# &ete(min#"i%n &e l# ';(&i&# &e m## 'o( "#le$#""i%n 4t#l e* en '(een"i# &e !n g# ine(te5) o &e'!; &e l# lio$ili*#"i%n. En l# in&!t(i# #liment#(i# el m;to&o &e De#n St#(B t#mi;n e !tili*#&o "omnmente.

Segn el Li(o An!#l &e Et@n&#(e &e l#  ASTM 4Ame(i"#n So"iet- $o( Teting #n& M#te(i#l5) el "onteni&o tot#l &e 9!me&#& e#'o(#le en Agg(eg#te 4C 85 e '!e&e "#l"!l#( "on l# $%(m!l#:

&on&e  p  e l# $(#""i%n &el "onteni&o tot#l &e 9!me&#& e#'o(#le &e l#

m!et(#) W  e l# m## &e l# m!et(# o(igin#l) - l# D e l# m## &e l# m!et(#

e"#.

'1t#d#" ge#$!"ic#"

Eiten #(io m;to&o geo$+i"o 3!e 'e(miten "#l"!l#( el "onteni&o &e #g!# #'(oim#&o &el !elo in situ. Eto m;to&o in"l!-en: (e$le"tomet(+# &e &ominio

&e tiem'o 4TDR5) on&# &e ne!t(one) eno( &e &ominio &e $(e"!en"i# ) on&# &e "#'#"it#n"i#) Tomog(#$+# &e (eitii&#& el;"t(i"#) (#&#( &e 'enet(#"i%n en el te((eno 4GPR5) - ot(# 3!e on enile # l# '(o'ie&#&e $+i"# &el #g!#.6

Lo eno(e geo$+i"o e !tili*#n # men!&o '#(# "ont(ol#( l# 9!me&#& &el !elo &e $o(m# "ontin!# en #'li"#"ione #g(+"ol# - "ient+$i"#.

'1t#d# de ececi/n e0#ta # "at1lite

S#t;lite &e oe(#"i%n (emot# 'o( mi"(oon&# e !tili*#n '#(# etim#( l# 9!me&#& &el !elo) ##&o en el g(#n "ont(#te ent(e l# '(o'ie&#&e &iel;"t(i"# &el !elo 9me&o - e"o. Lo &#to &e lo #t;lite &e &ete""i%n (emot# 'o( mi"(oon&#) "omo: in&S#t) AMSRE) RADARSAT) ERS12) Meto'ASCAT e !tili*#n '#(# etim#( l# 9!me&#& !'e($i"i#l &el !elo.

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Cla"i$icaci/n 4 u"#"

L# 9!me&#& '!e&e et#( '(eente "omo 9!me&#& #&o(i&# en l# !'e($i"ie inte(n# - "omo #g!# "on&en#&# "#'il#(mente en lo 'o(o 'e3!e,o. Con !n# 9!me&#& (el#ti# #<#) l# 9!me&#& "ont# '(in"i'#lmente &e #g!# #o(i&#. A 9!me&#&e (el#ti#mente m@ #lt#) el #g!# l+3!i&# tien&e # e(  "#&# e* m@ im'o(t#nte) &e'en&ien&o &el t#m#,o &e lo 'o(o. En m#te(i#le &e m#&e(#) in em#(go) "#i to&# el #g!# e #o(i&# # 9!me&#&e 'o(  &e#<o &el Q &e 9!me&#& (el#ti#.

En #'li"#"ione iol%gi"# t#mi;n '!e&e 9#e( !n# &itin"i%n ent(e #g!# #o(i&# $+i"#mente - #g!# li(e  el #g!# #o(e $+i"#mente e #3!ell# 3!e et@ et(e"9#mente #o"i#&# - e (el#ti#mente &i$+"il &e elimin#( &e !n m#te(i#l iol%gi"o. El m;to&o !tili*#&o '#(# &ete(min#( el "onteni&o &e #g!# '!e&e #$e"t#( i el #g!# '(eente en et# $o(m# "ont#ili*#. P#(# !n# me<o(  in&i"#"i%n &e #g!# li(e - enl#*#&#) &ee(+# "oni&e(#(e l# #"tii&#& &el #g!# &e !n m#te(i#l.

L# mol;"!l# &e #g!# t#mi;n '!e&en et#( '(eente en m#te(i#le et(e"9#mente #o"i#&o "on mol;"!l# in&ii&!#le) "omo #g!# &e "(it#li*#"i%n) o "omo l# mol;"!l# &e #g!# 3!e on "om'onente et@ti"o &e l# et(!"t!(# &e l# '(ote+n#.

MATERIALES  PROCEDIMIENTO

Pl#to o T#(#

E el int(!mento !#&o en el l#o(#to(io '#(# el ot;n &e m#te(i#le) el 'l#to o t#(# '!e&e et#( el#o(#&o &e met#l) &e #("ill# o &e 'l@ti"o) '#(# el en#-o e'e"+$i"o !tili*#(emo l# t#(# &e met#l.

#l#n*# Me"@ni"#

L# #l#n*# 4&el l#t+n: bis) &o) lanx ) 'l#to5 e !n# '#l#n"# &e '(ime( g;ne(o &e

(#*o ig!#le 3!e me&i#nte el et#le"imiento &e !n# it!#"i%n &e e3!ili(io ent(e lo 'eo &e &o "!e('o 'e(mite me&i( m##. Al ig!#l 3!e !n# (om#n#) o !n# @"!l#) e !n int(!mento &e me&i"i%n 3!e 'e(mite me&i( l# m## &e !n o<eto.

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P#(# (e#li*#( l# me&i"ione e !tili*#n '#t(one &e m## "!-o g(#&o &e e#"tit!& &e'en&e &e l# '(e"ii%n &el int(!mento. Al ig!#l 3!e en !n# (om#n#) 'e(o # &i$e(en"i# &e !n# @"!l# o !n &in#m%met(o) lo (e!lt#&o &e l# me&i"ione no #(+#n "on l# m#gnit!& &e l# #"ele(#"i%n &e l# g(#e&#&.

El (#ngo &e me&i&# - '(e"ii%n &e !n# #l#n*# '!e&e #(i#( &e&e #(io Bilog(#mo 4"on '(e"ii%n &e g(#mo5) en #l#n*# in&!t(i#le - "ome("i#le= 9#t# !no g(#mo 4"on '(e"ii%n &e milig(#mo5 en #l#n*# &e l#o(#to(io.

 A(en#

L# #(en# e !n "on<!nto &e '#(t+"!l# &e (o"# &ig(eg#&#. En geolog+# e &enomin# #(en# #l m#te(i#l "om'!eto &e '#(t+"!l# "!-o t#m#,o #(+# ent(e 0)0 - 2 mm. Un# '#(t+"!l# in&ii&!#l &ent(o &e ete (#ngo e ll#m#&# grano de arena. Un# (o"# "onoli&#&# - "om'!et# 'o( et# '#(t+"!l# e &enomin#

#(eni"#  4Sin. psamita5. L# '#(t+"!l# 'o( &e#<o &e lo 0)0 mm - 9#t#

0)006 mm e &enomin#n limo) 'o( #((i# &e l# me&i&# &el g(#no &e #(en# -9#t# lo 6 mm e &enomin#n g(##.

Cono &e A(#m

El "ono &e A(#m e el en#-o 3!e e (e#li*# # lo #g(eg#&o o #l 9o(mig%n en ! et#&o $(e"o 4e"o5) '#(# me&i( ! "onteni&o &e 9!me&#&) ! "oniten"i#4$l!i&e* &el 9o(mig%n5 el "!@l "onite en (ellen#( !n mol&e met@li"o t(on"o"%ni"o &e &imenione no(m#li*#&#) en t(e "#'# #'ion#&#

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"on 28 gol'e &e #(ill# – 'i%n -) l!ego &e (eti(#( el mol&e) me&i( el #ent#miento 3!e e'e(iment# l# m## &e #g(eg#&o ! 9o(mig%n "olo"#&# en ! inte(io(. Et# me&i"i%n e "om'lement# "on l# oe(#"i%n &e l# $o(m# &e &e((!m#miento &el "ono &e 9o(mig%n me&i#nte gol'e l#te(#le "on el 'i%n. El e3!i'o ##("# &e mol&e &e met#l "%ni"o &e A el &i@met(o &e 1.8 '!lg#&# en el &i@met(o !'e(io( &e .8 '!lg#&# en l# #e - 2.7Q '!lg#&# en #lt!(#

/#(ill# o Pi%n Met@li"o

Int(!mento 3!e e !tili*# en lo l#o(#to(io '#(# l# #o("i%n &e #(en#. En ete en#-o !tili*#(emo el 'i%n <!nto "on !n "ono &e #(#m '#(# (e#li*#( l# me&i"i%n &el 'eo e'e"+$i"o &el #g(eg#&o $ino - &el #g(eg#&o g(!eo.

Un# #((# &el #'ion#miento &el met#l 3!e 'e# 12 on*# - 3!e tiene !n# "#(# "i("!l#( 'l#n# &el #'ion#miento 1 '!lg#&# en &i@met(o.

M#ll# o T#mi"e &e Met#l

Un t#mi* e im'lemente !n# m#ll# &e $il#mento 3!e e ent(e"(!*#n &e<#n&o !no 9!e"o "!#&(#&o. E im'o(t#nte 3!e eo "!#&(#&o teng#n to&o el mimo t#m#,o) -# 3!e ;te &ete(min#(@ el t#m#,o &e lo 3!e # # #t(#e#( el

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9!e"o) t#mi;n "ono"i&o "omo l!* &e m#ll#. En l# in&!t(i# $#(m#";!ti"#) e em'le#n t#mi"e &e #(i# l!"e &e m#ll# 3!e '!e&en #'il#(e !no en"im# &e ot(o) &e m#ne(# 3!e el &e m#-o( l!* &e m#ll# e# el !'e(io( - 3!e ;t# #-# &imin!-en&o 9#t# el t#mi* in$e(io(. Se &e'oit# l# m!et(# g(#n!l#&# en l# '#(te !'e(io( - e 'one to&o el item# en #git#"i%n) n#&# &e '(eion#( l# m!et(#) &e mo&o 3!e el g(#n!l#&o '#e # t(#; &e l# m#ll# 'o( + olo. Lo g(@n!lo m@ 'e3!e,o i(@n '##n&o) l%gi"#mente) &e t#mi* en t#mi*) &e"en&ien&o) mient(# 3!e lo m#-o(e e i(@n 3!e&#n&o en lo t#mi"e !'e(io(e.

Un# e* (e#li*#&o el t#mi*#&o) e #n "ogien&o lo t#mi"e !no # !no - e # le-en&o el #lo( &e l# l!* &e m#ll#. En el '(ime( t#mi* ten&(emo g(#n!l#&o &e m#-o( t#m#,o 3!e el #lo( 3!e in&i"#. En lo in$e(io(e) ten&(emo g(#n!l#&o &e m#-o( t#m#,o 3!e el 3!e in&i"# 'e(o meno(e 3!e l# l!* &e m#ll# &el t#mi* inme&i#t#mente !'e(io(. ) 'o( ltimo) lo g(@n!lo 3!e 9#-#n '##&o to&o lo t#mi"e ten&(@n !n t#m#,o meno( 3!e l# l!* &e m#ll# &el ltimo t#mi*.

Eto 'e(mite ele""ion#( !n g(#n!l#&o &e !n t#m#,o 4o !n (#ngo &e t#m#,o5 &ete(min#&o - 3!e #emo 3!e #n # e( #'(o'i#&o '#(# t(##<o 'ote(io(e. E #'li"#le en ot(o "#m'o) 'o( e<em'lo) '#(# elimin#( g(#no g(!eo &e #(en# 3!e '!e&en &#( !n# '#t# g(#n!lo# - &i$+"il &e t(##<#() "om'(o#( l# e$i"#"i# &e !n '(o"eo &e molien&#) et".

M#t(#* A$o(#&o o >iol#

Un #o &e '(e"i'it#&o e !n im'le "ontene&o( &e l+3!i&o) !#&o m!-"omnmente en el l#o(#to(io. Son "il+n&(i"o "on !n $on&o 'l#no= e le

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en"!ent(# &e #(i# "#'#"i&#&e) &e&e 1 ml 9#t# &e #(io lit(o. No(m#lmente on &e i&(io 4P-(e en ! m#-o(+#5 o &e gom#.

Piet#

T#mi;n ll#m#&# frasco lavador  o matraz de lavado) l# 'iet# e !n $(#"o

"il+n&(i"o &e 'l@ti"o o i&(io "on 'i"o l#(go) 3!e e !tili*# en el l#o(#to(io &e 3!+mi"# o iolog+#) '#(# "ontene( #lgn olente) 'o( lo gene(#l #g!# &etil#&# o &emine(#li*#&#) #!n3!e t#mi;n olente o(g@ni"o "omo et#nol) met#nol) 9e#no) et".

Ete !tenilio $#"ilit# l# lim'ie*# &e t!o &e en#-o) '(e"i'it#&o - ele"t(o&o.

T#(it#

Son (e"i'iente 3!e !#(emo '#(# e(i$i"#( el "onteni&o &e 9!me&#& &e lo #g(eg#&o $ino.

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En ete en#-o !tili*#(emo l# t#(# N2 - l# T#(# N 0

Vo(no

Un 9o(no e !n &i'oitio 3!e gene(# "#lo(  - 3!e lo m#ntiene &ent(o &e !n "om'#(timento "e((#&o. Se !tili*# t#nto en l# "o"in# '#(# "o"in#() "#lent#( o e"#( #limento) "omo en l# in&!t(i#. L# ene(g+# "#lo(+$i"# !tili*#&# '#(# #liment#( !n 9o(no '!e&e otene(e &i(e"t#mente 'o( "om!ti%n 4le,#) g# ! ot(o "om!tile5) (#&i#"i%n 4l!* ol#(5) o in&i(e"t#mente 'o( me&io &e ele"t(i"i&#& 49o(no el;"t(i"o5.

&i#" de 5#n#"

Un 9o(no &e le,#) !tili*#&o '#(# !no &e lo 'l#to t+'i"o "#tell#no) el le"9#*o ##&o) en el ##&o( R#$#el Co((#le) $!n&#&o en 102.

• Vo(no &e le,#. >!n"ion#n # '#(ti( &e m#te(i#le $o(et#le. De&e el

'!nto &e it# &el "on!mo ene(g;ti"o on lo meno e$i"iente - lo 3!e m@ emiione &e &i%i&o &e "#(ono tienen) 'e(o &e&e el '!nto &e it# g#t(on%mi"o) en "ie(to "#o &# !n #o( e'e"i#l # "ie(to

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'l#to. E #m'li#mente !tili*#&o en l# "o"in# t(#&i"ion#l "#tell#n#: "omo 'o( e<em'lo '#(# el "o(&e(o ##&o o el "o"9inillo ##&o.

• Vo(no &e g#. Son !n# !en# o'"i%n -# 3!e tienen !n# "o""i%n imil#( 

# l# &e lo &e le,#. 4En "!#nto # l# im'li"#"ione e"ol%gi"# e #n me<o( -# 3!e eto no emiten #l #miente g#e &e !n# "om!ti%n no "ont(ol#&#.5

• Vo(no el;"t(i"o. Lo 9o(no el;"t(i"o on tot#lmente #!tom#ti*#&o= l#

"o""i%n e l# m@ 'e($e"t# 'o( el "ont(ol 3!e m#ntiene o(e l# tem'e(#t!(# en to&o momento. Cie(to 3!e el "on!mo &e ele"t(i"i&#& e one(oo) #!n3!e en lo mo&e(no no e e"ei#mente #lto.

• Co"in# ol#( . S! '(in"i'#l ent#<# (#&i"# en el %'timo #'(oe"9#miento

&el (e"!(o ol#( '#(# otene( ene(g+# "#lo(+$i"#.

• El 9o(no &e "(iol

• Vo(no &e mi"(oon&#.   >!n"ion# me&i#nte l# gene(#"i%n &e on&#

ele"t(om#gn;ti"# 3!e inte(#""ion#n "on l# mol;"!l# &e #g!# "onteni&# en lo #limento. L# inte(#""i%n "onite en #'(oe"9#( l# '(o'ie&#&e (eon#nte &e l# mol;"!l# &e #g!# 3!e #o(en l# ene(g+# &e l# on&# ele"t(om#gn;ti"#) ele#n&o ! tem'e(#t!(#.

RESULTADOS

En#-o N 1

En#-o &e Ag(eg#&o >ino 4Peo E'e"+$i"o5

Lo 3!e !"#mo otene( en l# (e#li*#"i%n &e ete en#-o) e &ete(min#( l# "#nti&#& &e 9!me&#& 3!e eite en lo #g(eg#&o $ino 4#(en#5 - "!#l e el m#(gen 'e(miti&o 'o( l# no(m# t;"ni"#.

P#(# otene( ete (e!lt#&o) (e#li*#mo el en#-o "on !n# m!et(# &e #(en# "!#(te#&#. U#n&o l# m#ll# o t#mi* N 6 #mo # &e"#nt#( l# m!et(#. P#(# ello (e#li*#mo !n '(o"eo 3!e no 'e(miti(@ otene( el 'o("ent#<e &e 9!me&#& 3!e ten+# l# m!et(# ini"i#lmente) l!ego &e (e#li*#( el e"#&o &el #g(eg#&o en !n 9o(no.

P#(# eto "on!lt#(emo l# NORMA ITINTEC 600.010 &e Ag(eg#&o. Et(#""i%n= P(e'#(#"i%n &e l# m!et(# - l# NORMA ITINTEC 600.012 &e  Ag(eg#&o. An@lii g(#n!lom;t(i"o - 'o( ltimo ITINTEC 80.001 &e T#mi"e

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Dent(o &el En#-o N 1 Ten&(emo lo ig!iente D#to 'o( llen#( - lo (e!lt#&o # otene(:

I. DATOS

1. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo $(#"o J 'eo #g!# 2. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo &el $(#"o

. Peo &el #g!#

6. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no J 'eo &el $(#"o 8. Peo &el $(#"o

. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no 7. /ol!men &el $(#"o

En el ig!iente "!#&(o &eemo en"ont(#( lo 'eo e,#l#&o) '#(# (e#li*#(lo !#mo e<e("i"io m#tem@ti"o &e l# ig!iente $o(m#:

II. RESULTADOS

1. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m##

2. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m## #t!(#&o !'e($i"i#lmente e"# . Peo E'e"+$i"o #'#(ente

6. Po("ent#<e &e Ao("i%n

En#-o N 2

En#-o &e A(en# Vme&# 4Peo Unit#(io5

En ete en#-o oten&(emo l# "#nti&#& &e 9!me&#& 3!e eite en l# #(en#. U#(emo lo mimo &#to 3!e en el en#-o N1

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OSER/ACIONES

ENSAYO N6 7

1 Re"o<emo !n# m!et(# &e #g(eg#&o $ino 4#(en#5 &e 800 g( &e Peo. Ten&(emo en "!ent# 3!e '#(# e$e"to &e En#-o &e Ag(eg#&o >ino) l# No(m# no 'i&e !n m+nimo &e 2000 g( &e m!et(#) 'e(o (e&!"imo el en#-o "e,i&o # !n# '(!e# &e l#o(#to(io.

2 Un# e* oteni&# l# m!et(#) '(o"e&emo # "!#(te#( l# mim#) '#(# &e9#"e( lo g(!mo 3!e e $o(m#n en l# mim#.

 U#mo l# m#ll# N 6 '#(# t#mi*#(. To&o el m#te(i#l 3!e '#e 'o( l# m#ll# N6 e # # #t!(#(.

6 !"#(emo #9o(# el et#&o !'e($i"i#lmente e"o) # t(#; &e l# !tili*#"i%n &e !n "ono &e met#l - el 'i*%n. En !n# #n&e<# &e met#l) '(o"e&emo # #"i#(  l# m!et(# - "on #-!&# el 'i*%n "om'(imimo l# m!et(# # t#l g(#&o 3!e no '!e&# 3!e&#( l# $o(m# &el "ono (egit(#&# en l# m!et(# 4'#(e"i&o # !n "e((ito &e #(en# &e &imenione 'e3!e,#5.

8 Un# e* te(min#&o) le#nt#mo el "ono - '(o"e&e(emo # oe(#( !n "m!lo &e #(en# en $o(m# &e "e((o) lo 3!e no in&i"# 3!e e en"!ent(# !'e($i"i#lmente #t!(#&#.

 Pote(io(mente (e"o<emo lo 800 g( &e m!et(# &el et#&o #t!(#&o !'e(  e"o - e e"9#n # !n $(#"o) &on&e l!ego e le 9e"9# #g!# - "omen*#mo # gi(#( "ont#ntemente '#(# 3!e #lg# el #i(e.

7 Pe#mo !n# T#(# MF - otenemo Q. g(#mo.

Q Colo"#mo l# m!et(# en l# t#(# - #"i#mo el l+3!i&o en l# t#(# - 'onemo l# t#(# &e $o(m# in"lin#&#.

 L!ego S#"#mo el #g!# &e l# t#(# '#(# 3!e 3!e&e el #g(eg#&o $ino - &e !n# e* 9e"9o eto) e lle# #l 9o(no # 110 J 8  Centig(#&o &!(#nte 26 9o(#. 10 L!ego &e '##( l# 26 9o(#) '(o"e&emo # #"#( l# t#(# &el 9o(no -otenemo !n 'eo &e WWWW g(

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ENSAYO N6 8

1 Ne"eit#mo "ont#( "on !n# m!et(# &e #(en# 9me&#.

2 Colo"#( #(en# en !n (e"i'iente) l!ego le &#mo #lg!n# moi&# -'##mo # 'e#( el m#te(i#l.

Peo &el M#te(i#l   6 g(#mo

T#(#: XAA III Peo T#(#  72.6 g(#mo

 L!ego #"#mo !n 'o"o &e #(en# '#(# otene( el 'eo &el m#te(i#l 9me&o. 6 Pe#mo l# t#(# - otenemo:

Peo &e l# T#(# J M!et(# Vme&#  6Q6.

CONCLUSIONES

En#-o N 1

Po&emo "on"l!i( en ete en#-o 3!e el #g(eg#&o $ino 4#(en#5 tiene !n 'eo en ! et#&o n#t!(#lF 3!e "ontiene #i(e - #g!# - 3!e '!e #l e"#&o 'o&emo #'(e"i#( "!#l e ee niel 3!e 9#"e 3!e #!mente ! ol!men 'o&emo e(i$i"#(  l# &i$e(en"i# "on el ig!iente "!#&(o "om'#(#tio:

I. DATOS

1. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo $(#"o4$iol#5 J 'eo #g!# 2. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo &el $(#"o 4$iol#5

. Peo &el #g!#

6. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no J 'eo &el $(#"o 4t#(# RD105 8. Peo &el $(#"o 4t#(#5

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. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no 7. /ol!men &el $(#"o

El /ol!men &el $(#"o lo 9#ll#mo "on l# ig!iente $o(m!l#: /  m##&eni&#& 4'eo e'e"+$i"o5

II. RESULTADOS

1. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m##

2. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m## #t!(#&o !'e($i"i#lmente e"# . Peo E'e"+$i"o #'#(ente

6. Po("ent#<e &e Ao("i%n

Pe  Peo/ol!men

En#-o N 2

Po&emo "on"l!i( en ete en#-o 3!e l# #(en# 9me&# tiene !n 'eo en ! et#&o n#t!(#lF - 3!e '!e #l e"#&o 'o&emo #'(e"i#( "!#l e ee niel 3!e 9#"e 3!e #!mente ! ol!men 'o&emo e(i$i"#( l# &i$e(en"i# "on el ig!iente "!#&(o "om'#(#tio:

I. DATOS

1. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo $(#"o4$iol#5 J 'eo #g!# 2. Peo &e l# #(en# !'e($i"i#lmente e"# J 'eo &el $(#"o 4$iol#5

. Peo &el #g!#

6. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no J 'eo &el $(#"o 4t#(# RD105 8. Peo &el $(#"o 4t#(#5

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. Peo &e l# #(en# e"#&# #l 9o(no 7. /ol!men &el $(#"o

II. RESULTADOS

1. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m##

2. Peo E'e"+$i"o &e m## #t!(#&o !'e($i"i#lmente e"# . Peo E'e"+$i"o #'#(ente

6. Po("ent#<e &e Ao("i%n

P#(# el "@l"!lo &el ol!men) no #'o-#(emo en el "@l"!lo &e ol!men &el (e"i'iente) '#(# ello tenemo l# ig!iente me&i&#

Di@met(o  18.8= 18.Q  18.8 4P(ome&io5

 Alt!(# 495  18.2= 18.1Q= 18.20= 18.8  18.1Q28 4P(ome&io5 /ol  Y&Z6  9

/ol!men  .161 418.856  18.1Q28  2Q18.12 "m[

El et!&io &e #g(eg#&o '#(# "on"(eto et(!"t!(#le "om!ne e &e !m# im'o(t#n"i#) -# 3!e eto o"!'#n ent(e el 70 - 78 &el ol!men &e l# m## en&!(e"i&#= '#(# eto et!& io e $!n&#ment#l (e#li*#( "ie(t o en#-o "omo lo 3!e on (e#li*#&o en el l#o(#to(io. Ent(e eto en#-o t e ne m o  : e l 'e  o e'e"+$i"o &e $ino - g(!eo) 'eo !nit#(io) e3!i#lente &e #(en# - "olo(imet(+#.

Vemo 'o&i&o "on"l!i( "omo el ol!men &e lo #g(eg#&o $ino) #!ment#) "on$o(me ! 9!me&#&.

RE>ERENCIAS ILIOGR\>ICAS

 DANIEL GRAU]) >!n&#mento &e me"@ni"# &e !elo) '(o-e"to &e m!(o - "iment#"ione)

C#'it!lo I) #("elon#) 178 42^. E&i"i%n5.

 ESPERAN_A LANCO) Lo Mine(#le - ! Utili&#& en Geolog+#) +ntei `e.

(22)

 GON_ALO DUaUE) Me"@ni"# &e !elo C#'+t!lo I) II - III) ogot@) 200.

 AL>ONSO LOPE_ MONTEXO) Ingenie(+# &e '#imento '#(# "#((ete(#) C#'it!lo II) ogot@) 200

42^. E&i"i%n5

 OSCAR GON_ALES) >EDERICO ROLES) A'e"to $!n&#ment#le &el "on"(eto (e$o(*#&o) M;i"o

D.>) 18.

 CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS  E]PERIMENTACION DE ORAS PULICAS GOIERNO DE ESPAÑA

4CEDE]5) No(m# &e L#o(#to(io &e T(#n'o(te NLT18) M#&(i&) 12  ```.`iBi'e&i#.o(g`iBiPeoWe'e"+$i"o

 ```."ont(!'#ge."om

Figure

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Referencias

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