PDF superior Essays on the Economic History of the family

Essays on the Economic History of the family

Essays on the Economic History of the family

In order to isolate the effects of child labor legislation, it is necessary to restrict my attention to an even more confined geographical area, where the regional economic conditions are more or less constant. There are two major cities along the border for which manufacturing censuses reported individual information: Wheeling in West Virginia and, a few miles south from it on the Ohio side of the river, Bellaire (See Figure C.3). In addition to being the largest cities on the border between Ohio and West Virginia, the industrial composition of both was quite similar. Coal mining, rolling mills and, in particular, glassworks were abundant on both sides of the river. Fuel was widely available and equally cheap in both Wheeling and Bellaire. Of particular interest to the glass industry, natural gas had become available in the area around 1886 and it was the same firm that provided the service on both sides of the river. Finally, ever since the opening of the Wheeling suspension river in 1849, the area had become increasingly integrated. In a word, it could be reasonably argued that the cost of fuel and inputs in Wheeling and Bellaire was the same. The main difference between these two cities is that they are subject to different legislation as they belonged to different states. Table C.7 presents aggregate manufacturing data on Wheeling (WV) and Bellaire (OH) for the period 1899-1919. In both cities, employment and value added are growing at the beginning of the period. However, during the period 1904-1909, the evolution of employment starts to diverge between them. The number of wage earners in Bellaire stabilizes around 1914 and starts decreasing afterwards. By 1919, the number of wage earners in Bellaire was just about the same as in 1904. In the same period, employment had doubled in both Ohio and West Virginia, and even the neighboring city of Wheeling had managed to increase its manufacturing employment by over 20%.
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147 Lee mas

TítuloThree essays on peripherality and economic development

TítuloThree essays on peripherality and economic development

The accumulation of capital and the creation of employment were important factors, yet the improvements in productivity were scarce in nearly all sectors. The specialisation of production has not strengthened the presence of innovative activities and those with a high technological content as would be expected from an advanced economy, but instead in traditional and highly cyclical sectors such as construction. Low productivity levels have affected nearly all of the country’s activities, despite an increase in capital assets per worker during this period. However, these were much more serious in the construction sector, as during the housing boom a large number of investment projects based their short-term profitability on expectations for the revaluing of the assets and not on productivity. The pattern of growth of the Spanish economy in the 2000s was fragile and unsustainable in the long term. On the one hand, “the competitiveness of Spain at a global level has placed too much trust in the short-term benefits derived from the arrival of the Euro” (Pérez et al, 2011), while on the other, the risks and imbalances accumulated during the period of expansion and housing boom (a high current account deficit and heavy debt burden) led the Spanish economy to be highly
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86 Lee mas

Cliometrics : a market account of a scientific community, 1957-2005

Cliometrics : a market account of a scientific community, 1957-2005

The general trends of this community of scholars can be traced out through Robert Whaples‟s articles “A Quantitative History of the Journal of Economic History and the Cliometric Revolution ” published in 1991 and “ The Supply and Demand in Economic History: Recent Trends in the Journal of Economic History ” published in 2002. Based on a classification by subject, methods and periods of the published articles, Whaples facilitates a better identification of the evolution and cha racteristics of this movement. He notes that by 1960‟s research interests moved away from business history, history of economic thought and methodology toward economic growth, trade, and industrialization (1991, 291). Certainly, the work of Robert P. Thomas on the effects of the British Navigation Laws on the American colonies (1965), Douglass North‟s on the nineteenth U.S. economic growth and ocean shipping (1961,1968), and Robert Fogel and Albert Fishlow‟s on the contributions of railroads to American eco nomic growth (1964,1965) were paradigmatic. Between 1965 and 1970, the cliometric articles in this journal were popular. The insiders were mainly American scholars working on the U.S. economy. At the same time, leading universities like Yale, Harvard, Stanford, Univeristy of Chicago, and MIT hosted the most productive cliometricians. Names like Pauld David, Lance Davis, Peter Temin, and Robert Fogel appeared frequently in the pages of the JEH. The influence that these pioneering scholars had on the next generation indicates that the diffusion came about throughout a great deal of contagion. The close relationship of students and masters stimulated many Ph.D. dissertations and future practitioners. A thriving market eager for scholars assured stable jobs and grants as well. Diffusion was pushed forward once these main universities undertook the risk thus signaling other universities which path to follow. (Field 1987, 8; Williamson 1991, 8).
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54 Lee mas

M  G  Sanchez: An Interview

M G Sanchez: An Interview

M. G. Sanchez was born in Gibraltar in 1968. He has written three novels on Gibraltar—The Escape Artist, Solitude House and Jonathan Gallardo—as well as numerous stories, essays, journalistic pieces and works of non- fiction. He lived on the Rock until the age of twenty-seven, when he moved to the United Kingdom to study English Literature. He subsequently took BA, MA and PhD degrees at the University of Leeds, completing his studies in 2004 with a thesis exploring perceptions of “hispanicity” in Elizabethan and Jacobean literature, entitled Anti-Spanish Sentiment in English Literary and Political Writing, 1553‒1603 . Since then he has lived mainly in the United Kingdom, but has also done stints in New Zealand (2004), India (2005 ‒2008) and, more recently, Japan (2014‒2016). His writing focuses primarily on matters of Gibraltarian identity, although he confesses to be naturally drawn to “noir” subjects. He has often stated that his intention is to debunk the stereotypes propagated by both the British and Spanish press on the subject of Gibraltar and the Gibraltarians. He believes that the people of Gibraltar have been historically excluded or disregarded from “the discourse of Gibraltar”—and that it is his duty as a Gibraltarian writer to counter this representational void. Writing in the prestigious left-leaning British publication the New Statesman in January, 2015, for example, he made the following statement: “Long ago, you see, I came to a simple realisation. And that is that if we don’t start writing about ourselves, we run the risk of being presented to the world solely through the prism of others’ perceptions. Or, to paraphrase the words of the great Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe: ‘If you don’t write your own stories, others will write them for you’.” His writing can therefore be seen as a way of redressing the balance of history, placing Gibraltarians and their concerns at the centre—rather than at the periphery— of the ongoing struggle between Spain and United Kingdom over the British colony’s future.
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12 Lee mas

Essays on the consequences of banking shocks

Essays on the consequences of banking shocks

In terms of economic magnitudes, a one percentage point increase in capital, on average, increases the amount of security bought by 11.1%. Furthermore, there is an additional 6.1% increase if the security fell in the previous quarter by one standard deviation. In column 2, we include both bank*time and security*time fixed effects to account for all time-varying heterogeneity in bank and security characteristics. 33 The results obtained are similar to those reported in column 1. These results (as well as the other results in the paper) are robust to inclusion of other interactions of bank characteristics with lagged percentage change in price, bank*security fixed effects and double clustering at the bank and security level. In column 3, we include as controls the lagged cumulative gains/losses for in- dividual securities that are present in the banks’ investment portfolios. We do not find that banks buy more of securities where they have higher accumulated losses. In fact, we do not find any significant effect. Moreover, the interaction term of cu- mulative gains with capital is also not significant. These findings do not support the view that banks buy securities that had a larger drop in price in an effort to increase the price of these securities to make their existing portfolio look better. Thus, this finding is not consistent with window dressing activities being the driver of banks’ investment in securities that had a larger price drop. Also, as discussed later, we find that banks with a higher level of capital sell more of securities where they have larger accumulated losses in their existing investment portfolio. In col- umn 4, we estimate the regressions conditional on the bank buying a security. We again find similar results to those reported earlier. In columns 5 to 8, we report the estimations for non-trading banks. For these banks, we find that the overall level of investment in securities is not increasing in the level of capital (column 5). The coefficient on capital is not statistically significant. Moreover, unlike for trading banks, we do not find that higher capital is consistently associated with a
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116 Lee mas

In Search of a Definition For the History of Economic Thought

In Search of a Definition For the History of Economic Thought

However, it is necessary to reject with force all these stereotypes that have no bases. The historians of economic thought pay attention to the context in which theories are developed, but their analysis is not historicist nor historiographic. They make use of historical knowledge to better understand their proposals. Today’s specialists of Game Theory could use Nash’s 1950 text, thus having recourse to history. When a specialist in evolutionary economics specialists could base their research on Shumpeter’s texts, thus also making use of history. This historical method should not be exclusive of the history of economic thought, but should concern all the other sub-disciplines. The specificity of this method is derived from its relationship with the character of research that we have underlined above.
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15 Lee mas

Essays on the economics of crime

Essays on the economics of crime

I develop a new dynamic framework to analyze juvenile crime. The consistent decisions, between crime and legal activities, of forward-looking youths depend upon their work and crime related skills, which in turn are shaped by their history of past choices. The model explicitly recognizes the contrasting levels of punishment of the juvenile and adult criminal systems. Signi…cant changes in the incentives to engage in criminal activities coupled with an unusual increase in juvenile delinquency make Uruguay an ideal environment to calibrate and test this framework. Model predictions indicate that four factors can account for 86 percent of the observed variation in juvenile crime: the evolution of wages relative to the monetary gains from crime; a new lenient juvenile crime regulation that includes the decriminalization of attempted-theft; an increase in the escape rate from correctional facilities, and a cocaine base epidemic. Additional counterfactual results suggest an increase in the expected punishments of young o¤ enders in the juvenile justice system is a better way to …ght juvenile crime than an early transition to adult courts. The …rst alternative not only predicts a similar reduction in juvenile o¤ ending but also avoids negative consequences in terms of adult criminal behavior.
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55 Lee mas

Essays on the behavior and regulation of insiders

Essays on the behavior and regulation of insiders

Our model adds to a growing literature on firms (not specifically REITs) with several large shareholders. While REITs are particularly well suited for our analysis given their dividend-payout requirements, our qualitative results would likely apply to the non-REIT corporation setting as well. Independently of this work, Pritsker (2005) develops a related model. He also constructs a model of multiple “large traders” in a CARA/normal setting and borrows, as does this paper, modeling techniques from DeMarzo and Urosevic (2006). In many important ways, however, our models are quite different. The key difference is in the economic environment that the two mod- els portray. While both of our papers incorporate diversification as a key motivation to trade, Pritsker (2005) studies market liquidity, shock transmission and market manipulation by large institutional traders with varying degrees of risk aversion in a multi-asset economy with no moral hazard. In contrast, we study the evolution of insider ownership stakes in a single-asset economy in which insiders face a moral hazard problem. 5 Another theoretical work on dynamic trading by multiple large
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124 Lee mas

Essays on the economics of culture and identity

Essays on the economics of culture and identity

Attitudes towards work have been connected to economic development since Max Weber’s famous thesis on the Protestant work ethic and the rise of capitalism. Changing work patterns (de Vries, 1994; Voth, 1998) and an increasing importance placed on the values of hard work and diligence (Anthony, 1977) marked the passage from a peasant society to industrialization in England, while the Confucian work ethic has been credited with part of the success of the East Asian “miracle” economies (Liang, 2010). Today, attitudes toward work and leisure vary widely across countries, with the divide between the US and Europe being the most well known example of this variation (Alesina et al., 2006). Though one can see how hard-working individuals and societies might end up doing well, the origin of such values is not obvious, since work also entails disutility. In fact, for some authors, the question is “not why people are lazy or why they goof off but why, in absence of compulsion, they work hard” (Lipset, 1992). This study suggests that a norm of hard work develops when returns to work outweigh its costs. In particular, we examine the hypothesis that a work ethic forms when labor constitutes a relatively important input in the production process.
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194 Lee mas

An economic personalist perspective of human capital : a compared anthropological interpretation / tesis doctoral presentada por Luca Sandonà ; dirigida por [el] Prof  Dr  Stefano Solari, [el] Prof  Dr  Juan Nave Pineda, [y el] Prof  Dr  [Gabriel] Gerez K

An economic personalist perspective of human capital : a compared anthropological interpretation / tesis doctoral presentada por Luca Sandonà ; dirigida por [el] Prof Dr Stefano Solari, [el] Prof Dr Juan Nave Pineda, [y el] Prof Dr [Gabriel] Gerez Kramer

The Marxist critique of classical political economy was based on Friedrich Hegel’s 89 philosophical thesis. Hegel tried to elaborate a systematic dialectic by starting with a logical point that might have surpassed the Kantian approach, and that might have further introduced a teleological ontology of the succession of political facts. This approach was further developed by Karl Marx’s 90 (1843) materialistic interpretation of history. In his principal work written in collaboration with Friedrich Engels, 91 Das Kapital (1885), Marx demonised entrepreneurial profit and objected to the concept of private property in the name of an original heterodox conception of natural law (Peterson, 1994). Marx criticised the free market system because in that system private companies often exploit workers. He argued that the added value of products manufactured by workers was not entirely reflected by workers’ wages (Andrew, 1983). Thus, a social revolution to put the means of production under state control was necessary. However, this project was deeply characterised by a materialist anthropology. Human dignity is eliminated through the cancellation of the employers’ economic risk, the destruction of managers’ organisational responsibility, the reduction of the workers’ passion for their labour and an inclination to sacrifices (Veca, 1973). The bureaucratisation of society provoked empathy, disinterest and denial of responsibility for consumer satisfaction (Isotta, 2003, p. 14-46). In the name of liberation of people, Marx paradoxically empowered the authority of state within people’s privacy. He materialised human capital because it considered man only for its material aspects. Murray Wolfson explains that the Marxist approach resulted in bigger external costs. He observes:
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366 Lee mas

Fernando Leal Carretero Book Review http:org.sagepub.com The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: http:www.sagepublications.com

Fernando Leal Carretero Book Review http:org.sagepub.com The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: http:www.sagepublications.com

This ‘type of human being’ is the famous ‘economic man’ of John Stuart Mill, the infamous homo oeconomicus, and a good example of what Weber called an ‘ideal type’. Now Weber believed that this ‘unrealistic fiction’, this ‘utopia’, this ‘mathematical ideal figure’, was ceasing to be an imaginary construction as he spoke and wrote. The historical development of Western culture was bringing about people who were more and more like that construction. A new ‘type of human being’ was being ‘bred’. And what Weber wanted more than anything else was to find a way to describe historically how that had taken place. He thought that something really portentous had been happening, by which ‘man’ was increasingly becoming ‘economically rational’—something that he had never been before as far as the history of all cultures and all peoples showed to him—and that this event had con- sequences far beyond the relatively narrow field of economic activity. It is no wonder that his course on economic theory contains so little theory and so much history, and that what he taught later on and everything he ever wrote was just a part of the gigantic puzzle he was trying to put together—the history of that uniquely important event. 7
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9 Lee mas

Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis en pacientes con cirrosis heptica en Yucatn, Mxico

Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis en pacientes con cirrosis heptica en Yucatn, Mxico

group of patients. The history of acute hepatitis in these patients with anti-HCV is mostly subclinical. The prevalence in relation to gender was not statistically significant, which demonstrates that the infection has no predisposition towards either gender. On the other hand, although the frequency of some recognized risk factors associated with transmission of HCV (perso- nal history of hepatitis, family history of liver disease, and history of blood transfusion) among the patients with or without anti-HCV is not statistically different, these factors in the transmission of HCV in Yucatan cannot be ruled out. Contact with asymptomatic house- hold members and a low socioeconomic level may par- ticipate in an important way in the transmission of HCV in this group of cirrhosis patients and non-intra- venous drug users.
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5 Lee mas

Essays on modern China:
the uses of history as a political device

Essays on modern China: the uses of history as a political device

Š‹ƒǯ• Š‹•–‘”› Šƒ s become an unavoidable subject for students of international relations wishing –‘—†‡”•–ƒ†DzŠ‹ƒǯ•”‹•‡Ǥdz…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›‹’‘”–ƒ–‹–Š‹••‡•‡‹• –‘…‘’”‡Š‡†Š‘™Š‹•–‘”›‹•Dz—•‡†dzƒ•ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ–‘‘Ž in China, by the Communist Party of China; its leaders; intellectuals; common people; inter alia. The present essays have the objective of deepening the understanding of the uses of history, working ƒ”‘—†–Š‡‘–‹‘‘ˆƒDz›–Š‘Ž‘‰‹œ‡†’ƒ•–dzȂ i.e. the construction of history that serves political needs. Four events that have shaped Modern China, and that have been subsequently used as a political device, are selected around the notion of waihuan neiluan Ȃ the interaction between foreign aggression and domestic disorder- which preannounce that every mythologization discussed here will have a combination of domestic history and problems, and the relationship with the Dz‘— tside dz Ȃ essentially the West.
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34 Lee mas

Essays on the economics of family formation, dissolution and bargaining

Essays on the economics of family formation, dissolution and bargaining

During the period covered by this study, two integral plans and one main law aimed at preventing and combating domestic abuse were implemented. The First Action Plan against Gender Violence (1998-2001) and the Second Integral Plan against Domestic Violence (2002-2004) were elaborated and implemented by the Spanish Women’s Institute. Those plans mainly in- cluded measures aimed at fostering awareness and prevention for potential victims, increasing the availability of resources for victims, and augmenting sanctions for aggressors. A major landmark in the fight against domestic violence, though, was the introduction in December 2004 of an integral law providing comprehensive protection measures against gender-based vi- olence. 30 These measures can be grouped into three broad areas of inter- vention. The first consists of awareness-raising and prevention measures on the one hand, and education and training activities on the other hand. The main measures involve informational campaigns, raising-awareness adver- tising in the media, reinforcing the notion of equality of rights and oppor- tunities between men and women in school curricula at all levels, training of healthcare professionals in detecting and preventing violence, and train- ing of legal protection and support professionals. A second group includes penal and judicial measures such as increased penalties for gender-based of- fenses and the establishment of specialized courts to deal with this kind of crimes. Finally, the third group of measures aims at increasing protection for victims of gender violence.
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185 Lee mas

Chronicity and pseudo inheritance of social exclusion: differences according to the poverty of the family of origin among trash pickers in León (Nicaragua)

Chronicity and pseudo inheritance of social exclusion: differences according to the poverty of the family of origin among trash pickers in León (Nicaragua)

early age, etc.), insecure and overcrowded housing and difficulties in meeting essential expenses arising from children's education are some of the aspects that help to explain academic failure in this group. In a country like Nicaragua, where access to reasonably paid employment is very difficult, the lack of basic education among the collectors can have a major impact on the chronification of their poverty. Low levels of education and illiteracy among the collectors particularly affect those from the poorest families, of whom half cannot read or write. According to Buchmann and Hannum (2001), the expansion of education in less developed states has resulted, inter alia, in the development of behaviour and practices for raising healthy children, as well as providing a wide variety of economic and non-economic mechanisms that influence health and wellness. Unfortunately, the collectors of the city of León seem to have been largely remained excluded from access to education.
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12 Lee mas

Essays on the labor market

Essays on the labor market

sample size. But still there are a couple of interesting results. First, despite small sample size, as shown in the …rst column (model I), in the regression with the three variables, all variables are signi…cant at 5%. From the main regression (model I), one expects that countries with higher …ring costs should have higher s (lower f ). This is in accordance with the literature, nonetheless cannot be found by regressing f over …ring costs only, such a regression (model V) gives a coe¢cient with the opposite sign and insigni…cant 4 and generates an incredibly low R-squared of zero. Furthermore, regressing over any pair of the three variables leads to at least one insigni…cant 5 coe¢cient. In particular, removing the rigidity index from the right hand side variables makes the coe¢cient of …ring costs in- signi…cant 6 . Moreover, model (I) produces by far the highest adjusted R-squared. Also the three models with highest adjusted R-squared share the rigidity index. Lastly, if instead of using the …rst principal component, one calculates an alternative index by averaging the two indexes of rigidity of hours and employment rigidity, the regressions give similar results but with marginally lower R-squared 7 . This goes in favor of using principal component analysis, and also in favor of the choice of these variables, because the principal component analysis reserves the information better than simple average.
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114 Lee mas

Compendium of Economic and Industrial History of the German Democratic Republic

Compendium of Economic and Industrial History of the German Democratic Republic

The General Secretary of the SED was looking for a way to stabilize the regime, which was afraid of watching social problems increase after the construction of Berlin’s Wall and the growing dissonance between slogans and reality. Also Ulbricht had a plan: to make the Federal Republic of Germany acknowledge that the German Democratic Republic’s socialist system was economically superior and that a hypothetical German reunification could only take place under the SED leadership.

76 Lee mas

Essays on the political economy of fiscal policy

Essays on the political economy of fiscal policy

We derive two forward-looking political equilibria. In the myopic equilibrium, the policy function is increasing with respect to capital; therefore tax enforcement increases in capital because higher transfers compensate the decisive voter for higher tax payments. In the strategic equilibrium, however, the policy function is decreasing with respect to capital, a result that reflects the believable threat of the current decisive voter regarding the choice of the future decisive voter. As the equilibrium is Markov-perfect, the only way to influence the myopic choice of the future voter is via a reduction in the level of capital stock, which is the result if the current decisive voter chooses a higher level of tax enforcement. Finally, in steady state, both Markov-perfect equilibria are determined by the negative impact that tax enforcement has on long run capital levels. This discouragement of capital accumulation is generated by the fact that workers have lower income and are the only agents who save. Steady-state enforcement is shown to be higher in the strategic equilibrium and in the social-planner equilibrium, compared to the myopic equilibrium. The model is extended to consider intra-generational inequality among workers that di?er by productivity. For this case, the Markov-perfect equilibrium is unique and strategic, reecting a coalition between capitalists and low-productivity workers. Higher inequality lowers capital and raises tax enforcement.
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96 Lee mas

Vol. 90, Núm. 5 (2019)

Vol. 90, Núm. 5 (2019)

In order to search for these etiologies, an exhausti- ve neurological-psychiatric clinical examination is es- sential and to assess the timing of appropriate neuro- physiological, imaging, genetic, and metabolic studies. In most cases, these are very expensive and require sedation or general anesthesia in the case of neuro- physiological studies and brain imaging which further limits their application. In our cases, a large number of studies were requested, most of which were not per- formed.

7 Lee mas

Essays on the pharmaceutical industry

Essays on the pharmaceutical industry

irrespectively of the good purchased. When reference prices are enforced, the situation differs because if the consumer buys the branded good, with a price higher than the generic, then (s)he not only pays the same copayment as before, but this time associated to the reference price, but also the difference between the price of the branded good and the reference price. If the consumer decides to buy the generic good, the situation is unchanged, in the sense that (s)he pays the same copayment of the price of the generic as before. Results obtained show that changing a copayment system to a reference price system can actually affect the R&D decision of firms. When a breakthrough drug is produced, one of the (short-run) objectives of reference prices is actually achieved: prices are lower than with copayments. However, we can have cases where the demand for the branded drugs is also lower under reference prices, so that overall, profits for the incumbent firm might be reduced. Hence, if this is the case, Health Authorities might actually discourage the production of breakthrough drugs if reference prices substitute copayments, since profits for these firms will be reduced. The story is somewhat similar when a me-too drug is produced. Prices for the branded drugs are reduced with the introduction of reference prices. Again, under certain conditions, demand for these goods can be higher under such system. For this to be the case, we require that the reference price is set high enough. Moreover, the demand for the new drug produced has to be sufficiently high. Otherwise, the incumbent firm will again be left worse off under reference prices.
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146 Lee mas

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