PDF superior Inequality and Social Inclusion in the Americas

Inequality and Social Inclusion in the Americas

Inequality and Social Inclusion in the Americas

La distribución desigual es el principal de los determinantes para caracterizar una desigualdad asociada con el agua. La escasez de información y de conocimientos técnicos, así como limitaciones en materia de recursos financieros necesarios para desarrollar la infraestructura hídrica, reducen las posibilidades de uso eficaz del agua, lo que afecta el suministro universal de recursos a todos los sectores de la sociedad y de la economía. Una creciente contaminación de los cuerpos hídricos y la reducción de las inversiones en mantenimiento y ampliación de obras relacionadas con el agua (suministro de agua potable, energía hidroeléctrica, transporte, turismo y esparcimiento) también contribuyen a suscitar desigualdades en materia de disponibilidad del agua y van en detrimento de la salud, con lo cual se convierten en factores determinantes de la pobreza y la exclusión. La riqueza hídrica del continente posee también dimensiones positivas, en que una utilización eficaz del recurso – por ejemplo el riego para producción de alimentos y seguridad alimentaria, generación hidroeléctrica y transporte comercial a través de cuerpos de aguas naturales y artificiales – ha aumentado las oportunidades de bienestar para comunidades, países y regiones. En muchos casos los beneficios económicos de esas actividades han contribuido a respaldar programas sociales que favorecen la inclusión social.
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Financial inclusion in Colombia: A scoping literature review

Financial inclusion in Colombia: A scoping literature review

The first concept that contributes to the understanding of financial inclusion and social innovation is social entrepreneurship. This concept can be explained as all those new projects that focus on social issues or as a set of actions that seek to improve the population’s social needs (Perrini, Vurro & Constanzo, 2010). Furthermore, other authors explain social entrepreneurship as activities seeking to create social value either by creating value in society or by strengthening issues of social concern via business activities, i.e. actions that provide solutions to social problems (Dacin, Dacin & Tracy, 2011; Weerawardena & Mort, 2012; Witkamp, Raven & Royakkers, 2011). In addition, it also stands for a set of tasks that pursue social improvement through poverty reduction and the creation of opportunities for the disadvantaged (Maak & Stoetter, 2012). It is important to highlight that social entrepreneurship is regarded as a part of social innovation (Witkamp et al., 2011). The foregoing definitions are associated with philanthropic activities carried out by foundations, which are entities promoted by individuals seeking to improve society and create social change.
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Engineers, Innovative Capacity and Development in the Americas

Engineers, Innovative Capacity and Development in the Americas

Telles (1994) Historia da Engenharia no Brasil, Seculos XVI a XIX is the principal source. In 1858 the Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Drawing, established in Rio de Janeiro in 1792, dedicated itself to civil engineering for the first time, studying steam engines and railroads, and in 1874 it became independent of the Military and became the Polytechnical School of Rio (today the School of Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro). This was the dominant institution for training engineers. Brazil’s second engineering school was founded around Mining in Ouro Preto. However, the low motivation for technical teaching of the time the school’s isolation, among other social factors, made it difficult to recruit students and it graduated few. From 1894 to 1896 four new schools were started in Sao Paolo, Pernambuco, Porto Alegre and Salvador. Telles (1994) suggestion that these schools would eventually end the Polytechnical School of Rio’s monopoly confirms the dominance of the latter in the production of engineers up to that point. We do not, however, have a long time series on graduates from any program. Telles reports the average annual number of domestic engineering graduates in Brazil as a whole for the period after 1890 at 45 per year, half of them produced in Rio by 1900. To estimate graduation rates for the 1860-1890 period, we rely on evidence from reported stocks. Telles tabulates the number of engineers in Rio as reported in Almanaque Laemmert, a periodical dealing with governance, commerce and industry in Rio, for 1854, 1870, 1883 and from the official Almanak dos Engenheiros an official publication of the government for the whole country in 1906. In Rio in 1854, there were 6 engineers and in Sao Paolo, the other principle locus of engineering talent, in 1857, there were 5. We therefore set 11 as our initial stock for the country in 1860. In 1870, the Almanaque Laemmert notes that Rio had grown to 28 engineers and by 1883, 126 (page 593). Given the rough earlier parity of Rio and Sao Paolo in 1854-57, we double the Rio numbers figures to get national figures for these periods. While the Almanak may be overstating the stock by including non degreed engineers, the implicit graduation rate leading up to 1883 is roughly 15 per year which is substantially below Telles’ documented graduation rate of 45 beginning in 1890. On the other hand, the consolidation of the Ouro Preto School of Mines and the new schools established after 1890 doubled whatever Rio’s capacity was and that was likely substantially more in 1890 than prior. Hence, a three-fold increase over the last two decades seems plausible. We interpolate an average value between the known values of
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The political economy of social security reforms in the Americas

The political economy of social security reforms in the Americas

distribution of costs and gains among groups can lead governments to lose battles in the implementation of reforms, as these are distributed within the society, with the winner groups being seeing as the politically strong, thus preventing the acceptance of the reform, However, the bias towards the status quo will also occur if, a priori, there is not an adequate identification of winners and losers. Usually, adjustment costs of any kind have fallen on the labour market, which leads to diminishing real wages, contracting demand and an anchor to growth (World Bank, 1994). Countries in which political institutions to some extent hinder opposition from interest groups from registering an affect on public policy decision-making would implement a reform faster. One example is the paralysis of activities in France in May 2003, as public workers opposed the reform to the pension system, which was also considered to be too expensive and too generous (New York Times, 2003; The Economist, 2003a), the government spent millions of dollars on a campaign to inform and convince workers of the benefits of reforming before the system collapses. This also leads to issues of credibility; Alesina and Drazen (1991) emphasize the importance of credibility in gaining acceptance for and implementing reforms, as this is relevant for diverse social groups, i.e. to what extent the reform is considered to be logical, even if a priori there is no certainty of success. On the other hand, it should be borne in mind that credibility is also understood as the level of commitment of the public decision-makers, as it is not known a priori to what extent they will carry through their decisions.
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Beyond class and nation: reframing social inequalities in a globalizing world

Beyond class and nation: reframing social inequalities in a globalizing world

This is to be distinguished from the cosmopolitan outlook, which pursues an active transformative politics of framing. The nation state principle no longer answers the Who-question of social inequality. In a globalized world the nation state framing loses its aura of self-evidence. In the face of geo-political insta- bilities the experience of ‘globality’ spreads (Albrow, Robertson). That means, for example, decisions taken within one territorial state significantly alter the situations of people living beyond the borders of that state, The same is true of the decisions of companies, transnational enterprises, the communication and information flows of the internet, the speculators of casino capitalism, supra- national organizations, global risks, transnational public spheres etc. etc. But because under conditions of cultural, economic and political globalization nation state boundaries increasingly resemble a Swiss cheese in which there are more holes than cheese, people in their socially unequal positions find themselves more vulnerable to transnational currents, forces and powers. Con- fronted by climate change, the spread of Aids, the incalculability of transna- tional terrorism and the unilateralism of the world’s greatest military power more and more people find themselves exposed to the experience, that their conditions of life and survival are at least as much dependent on processes which penetrate the borders of nation states as on ones which appear within nation state control.
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THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ECONOMY OF CARE IN A DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS

THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ECONOMY OF CARE IN A DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS

It is sometimes assumed (wrongly) that if issues of care were to be taken up by policy makers, then the only possible response would be to provide some kind of cash payment for women, for example, “wages for housework”, “mothers’ stipends” or “mothers’ pensions”. While this kind of demand may have been voiced historically by some women’s rights advocates (for example, early twentieth century maternalists), it is not the kind of social provision that most modern- day advocates of women’s rights prioritize. Not only is “wages for housework” not the only possible policy option (and certainly not the most desirable from a gender equality perspective), there is also enormous diversity in currently existing policy responses to care—arguably greater than that found for other contingencies such as illness or unemployment (Daly 2001). The possible policy interventions range through cash payments in the form of caregivers’ allowance or citizen’s wage (more gender-neutral than a mothers’ pension), taxation allowances, different types of paid and unpaid leave from employment, social security credits and social services (see box 3). Many of these policy options are already in place in a wide range of European welfare states as well as in other industrialized countries. Some of them may be less relevant for developing countries, for example, paid and unpaid leave provisions may seem of marginal relevance to countries where the great bulk of employment is of the informal kind and involves self-employment. But there are also a number of important social policy options in developing countries that affect the social rights and inclusion of those who provide unpaid care, for example, the design of pension systems and the extent to which they recognize unpaid work as a “contribution”, the provision and design of health and education services and the design of various family and child benefits (Razavi 2007).
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Educational mismatch and gender inequality in the labor market

Educational mismatch and gender inequality in the labor market

The role of education on improving people’s conditions has been widely studied in economics and other social sciences. Considering labor outcomes, higher levels of education are strongly correlated with higher employment rates and earnings. According to Human capital theory (Becker, 1964), productivity is a function of variables such as education, skills, training and experience, and workers’ wages are determined by the value of their marginal product. An em- pirical approach to test this theory was proposed by Mincer (1974) and the author studies the effects of a worker’s educational attainment, experience among other variables on wages with the Mincer earnings equation. The results obtained with this approach suggest that the effects of education on wages are determined by the supply of human capital (i.e , the individual’s ed- ucational level choice), giving no importance to job characteristics. Considering both sides of the story when studying the education effects on labor market outcomes such as salaries, the concept of educational mismatch arises.
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Sexual diversity in the workplace: competences for social inclusion

Sexual diversity in the workplace: competences for social inclusion

The current situation at the labor market discriminates and segregates certain groups of society because of their sexual orientation and/or expression, regardless of the skills and potential each individual has. Fear of colleagues leaving them out, insults or violence are circumstances that prevent LGBT employees from being their full selves to work, which often cause talented employees to leave workplaces where they don’t feel welcome. Discrimination and occupational segregation deviate for homosexual men, lesbian women, bisexual and transgender people depending on their identity, construction and the
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Why in democracies where power is apparently given to the most numerous class government decisions seem to be made which favour a minority, the elite? Our analysis shows that the answer may rely on the level of social identification of the groups. Among the many results delivered by the analysis, we show that if the rich place a low weight on their income inequality but care about the average income in their class, the higher their social identification they exhibit, the lower the equilibrium tax rate. Our analysis also compares democracies that differ along several dimensions, but in this case the effect of social identification depends generally on the weights given to inequality aversion. We find interesting the result that if in democracy A the rich are more ideological than in democracy B but they exhibit greater social identification than the poor, the equilibrium tax rate in democracy A may be lower than the tax rate in democracy B. Finally, we exploit this mechanism to attempt an explanation of the wide difference in the tax rate in place across otherwise similar countries, a long standing puzzle.
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Descargar documento

Descargar documento

The year 2015 was a deeply significant one for those concerned for environmental sustainability, as well as for those concerned with social development. No fewer than seven of the nineteen SDG goals link to issues of sustainability. In addition, the world celebrated in December as COP 21 established the first ever global framework for dealing with climate change. While each framework is significant in its own way, their success will be deeply affected by how successful they are in tackling intersecting inequalities. As Leach points out in Chapter 3 (27), inequality and environmental unsustainability are not only defining challenges of our age, they are also deeply interlinked in multiple ways. For instance, the earlier article by Murombedzi (9) in Part I argues that inequality of land and natural resources in the hands of the few has not led only to inequalities of wealth. It also allows the few to clear-cut, mine or farm the land in ways that may be ecologically unsustainable. Unless curbed, inequality is likely to continue to drive consumption of global resources in ways that are unsustainable, as Power, Wilkinson and Pickett describe (37). Focusing more on the experiences of those living in urban poverty, Narain (29) graphically describes how poor people are most exposed to air pollution, including the use of inefficient and dirty cook stoves and their exposure to emissions from the rising number of cars on the road, most of which are owned by the well-off. Strategies to provide clean water for all, she argues, must also be linked to strategies for affordable and equitable sanitation and waste management for all. Similarly, drawing on their research in Zambia and Malawi, Jafry and colleagues show how access to water in rural areas is a critical daily issue of survival (28) for millions in sub-Saharan Africa, one that is likely to be exacerbated if temperatures continue to rise due to climate change.
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El desarrollo comunitario en línea en las aulas y escuelas: El uso de internet por parte del profesorado como extensión de las prácticas comunitarias no mediadas por la tecnología

El desarrollo comunitario en línea en las aulas y escuelas: El uso de internet por parte del profesorado como extensión de las prácticas comunitarias no mediadas por la tecnología

Digital inequality also proposes a more in-depth analytical framework in order to improve the explanations of why the internet is appropriated une- qually. Rooted in the knowledge gap hypothesis (Tichenor et al., 1970), dig- ital divide research typically assumes a mechanical association between great- er social and economic advantages and better access or use of information. In this regard, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, education, and income) have commonly been used to examine the differences between users and non-users. While this has been a useful approach for the initial develop- ment of the research into the diffusion of the internet, it has also been criti- cised as being a limited approach to investigating the factors involved in its unequal appropriation (van Dijk & Hacker, 2003; Lievrouw & Farb, 2003; Warschauer, 2003). Even if we only consider the apparent binary gap between users and non-users, ways of overcoming the limitations of an approach that is essentially based on socio-demographic characteristics need to be addressed in a more substantial and comprehensive manner. That is, according to Liev- rouw and Farb (2003), through a careful consideration of the unequal inter- ests, concerns, expertise, and actual contexts of internet use involved in its appropriation in everyday life.
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A literature review about Argentinian educational management in times of change

A literature review about Argentinian educational management in times of change

Likewise, changes in social and family structure, and the instances of production and dissemination of meaning (culture) affect subjectivity construction processes. In this sense, the characteristics of access, permanence and grad- uation constitute a complex process that interweaves with other social and personal processes, such as the need to work, the poverty conditions of youths and their families, the will to continue studying or not, the freedom to decide on one’s own future, as well as the expectations that cer- tified completion of secondary studies generates. In fact, until 2011, Argentina kept a low secondary graduation rate in the poorest segment of the population (40% of quintile 1), whereas the richest segment of the population showed a high graduation rate (87% of quintile 5) (IDB, 2011). Thus, the enactment of the law proves to be insufficient to resolve the complex youths and adolescents’ educational processes. Institutions (DiNIECE, 2009), understood as a set of rules and resources that structure social and educational practices, changed their shape and meaning. As regards organizational structures that support social inclusion, there are two different perspectives. On the one hand, it is believed that social inclusion is achieved when everybody takes part in the same school (homogeneous structures in organizational and curricular terms). Some authors (Arroyo & Nobile, 2015; Montes & Ziegler, 2012; Tenti Fanfani, 2009; Tiramonti, 2012) argue that social justice in educa- tion implies that those social sectors that were expelled or never accessed secondary school must remain in and gradu- ate from those very same schools.
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Digital health in the Americas: advances and challenges in connected health

Digital health in the Americas: advances and challenges in connected health

Given this situation, the present work aims to deter- mine whether a nation’s striving towards the health and well-being of its citizens depends solely on the level of economic development, or whether it also depends on the social actions of its leaders. To do this, we have taken the region of the Americas and its experiences in the development of digital health (or eHealth) as a unit of analysis. Data from the Third Global Survey on eHealth for the region of the Americas seem to show that health and well-being depend on both coun- tries’ economic development and the social actions of its leaders since, regardless of governments’ political leanings (which may be totally opposed as in countries such as Cuba and Honduras), the indicators related to certain health management practices are high. Furthermore, the policies developed in the healthcare arena dub universal coverage, eHealth and technology training for healthcare professionals as key in health policy.
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Everlasting Countdowns: Race, Ethnicity and National Censuses in Latin American States

Everlasting Countdowns: Race, Ethnicity and National Censuses in Latin American States

The editors note that the use of social categories of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ in national censuses are drawn upon in discussions surrounding social and economic inequality, wealth distribution, economic and social power, citizen rights, and the formation of state policies related to those themes. In these authors’ words, ‘censuses are administrative tasks in which the state is obliged to transform ideology into practice’ (3). In general, they note, ‘there is a predominant concern with improving the quality of censuses by creating mechanisms that portray the population’s cultural diversity with more reliability and contrast it with other social diversities’ (4). Ultimately, they see ideology as a pervasive characteristic of the mechanisms and interpretation of national censuses, combining to influence the image of the population with resultant practical societal impacts.
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Strategy for Inclusion and Reducing Social Inequality in Barcelona 2017-2027

Strategy for Inclusion and Reducing Social Inequality in Barcelona 2017-2027

Residential vulnerability has been calculated on the basis of a summary index incorporating socio-economic indicators (expressing economic fragility, the need for financial help with subsistence or keeping a home, etc.), socio- spatial indicators (profiling the areas of diversity and the need to manage cultural coexistence to move towards interculturality, social and generational change, over-ageing, senile dependency etc.) and urban planning and socio- urban planning indicators (which add the spatial and functional features of the dwellings, the quality and category of the building, its state of conservation and maintenance, the type of property holding, capacity for access to housing, etc.) A study of this index shows a large part of the city has a low level of vulnerability. If we observe the territorial distribution, the districts of Eixample and Les Corts do not present areas with a moderate or low level of vulnerability, except for the Colònia Castells block, which is in the process of redevelopment. Leaving aside its outer areas, the Sants-Montjuïc district includes some vulnerable areas concentrated in Poble-sec and Hostafrancs, while the central area of Sarrià - Sant Gervasi presents a low level of vulnerability. There is also a sector with a pronounced risk in the mountain part of this district, specifically in Vallvidrera and Les Planes. Gràcia also offers a fairly resistant image almost in its entirety. The situation throughout the central stretch of Sant Andreu is one of low or moderate vulnerability and only the north and east of the Front Marítim del Besòs, Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver, where areas of extreme fragility have been identified, stand out.
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The Social Health Atlas : a policy tool to describe and monitor social inequality and health inequality in Australia

The Social Health Atlas : a policy tool to describe and monitor social inequality and health inequality in Australia

Table 1 includes brief details of each version, with a comment on the major changes bet- ween versions and editions. The first South Australian edition comprised separate maps by postcode or SLA for the capital city (Adelaide, a city of 1 million people) and by SLA or region for the non-metropolitan areas (population of 400,000 people). Of interest was a map of the factories, foundries, an oil refinery and other premises in Adelaide being monitored under the State's Clean Air Act. Each of the facilities was located using a hand-held GPS receiver. They were then located on a map and symbols added to show the existence of particulate matter (dust) of nuisance value only; hazardous par- ticulates; hazardous gas; odour; none of the above. The levels of total suspended particu- late matter and total suspended lead by monitoring site in Adelaide and Port Pirie, the site of a lead smelter north of Adelaide, were also mapped. While no attempt was made to correlate these data with the other data in the atlas, the publication of the information was seen as important. Unfortunately these data have not been available for subsequent analysis, but recent initiatives could see similar data becoming available in the near future.
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Social Public Procurement Guide

Social Public Procurement Guide

Article 60(1)(d) of the TRLCSP establishes that a company with 50 or more employees in its workforce may not enter into contracts with public authorities and their associated public sector unless it demonstrates compliance with the requirement that at least 2% of the staff hired are people with a disability, as required under Article 42 of Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013, of 29 November, approving the consolidated text of the General Act on the Rights of Persons with a Disability and their Social Inclusion. This ban on contracting may not apply, according to Transitional Provision 10 of the TRLCSP, until the rule has a regulatory basis to it. Even so, the Additional Provision 4 of the TRLCSP stipulates that contracting bodies may use documentation to verify that the company is complying with this legal provision.
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Barcelona social inclusion plan for 2012-2015

Barcelona social inclusion plan for 2012-2015

character of the citizens of Barcelona. The Barcelona Social Inclusion Plan for 2012-2015 seeks to structure the sec- toral and regional policies that will gua- rantee the provision of services for the inclusion of citizens. Hence, it has been designed to be the main instrument for formulating a comprehensive, unified and effective response from the who- le city – as opposed to solely from the City Council. Its aim is to set new goals and innovative strategic lines for the future, in addition to specific actions to meet short-term needs effectively. It is also the basic municipal instrument for building an inclusive and cohesive city. On 10 November 2011, the City Govern- ment passed a resolution on the Social Inclusion Plan for 2012-2015. This was followed by an inclusive participatory process that led to the reworking of the document with input from the whole of civil society. This process involved the Municipal Council for Social Welfare, the Citizen Agreement for an Inclusive Barcelona and the staff of several mu- nicipal departments, most notably the Department of Quality of Life, Equality and Sport.
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Financial inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: review and lessons

Financial inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: review and lessons

Over and above the theoretical arguments for and against microfinance, much of the buzz about the industry is rooted in successful case studies. Although such small samples suffer from evident selection bias, it is nonetheless a useful starting point to identify some of their crucial singularities and draw lessons for the future. Ten case studies in the field from different countries in LAC are examined: BancoEstado y Bandesarrollo (Chile), Compartamos (Mexico), BancoSol, Banco Los Andes y FIE (Bolivia), Crediamigo (Brazil), Banco Caja Social (Colombia), Credife (Ecuador) y Mibanco (Peru). The choice was not guided by any particular criterion except for the fact that they are all matured projects and list among the 100 largest MFIs in the region –with a share of 26% of total clients and 34% of portfolio within this group as of 2006-, making them highly representative examples. Their very success has attracted the attention of a number of scholars –the list of studies the following analysis is based on is at the bottom of Table 15, where some major characteristics of each program are summarized.
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Hepatitis E virus exposure in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico

Hepatitis E virus exposure in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico

their containers to the client container) with bare and likely unwashed hands, and measures to avoid contamination of the glass are not suitable. There- fore, the poor hygiene practices in handling cow milk from the stall to the consumers’ table may con- tribute to explain the link of HEV seropositivity with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk. Thus, contamination of milk with human feces might occur as also occur with water. Further research should be conducted to elucidate the association of HEV ex- posure and consumption of unpasteurized cow milk. Several of the risk factors evaluated in the present study are interrelated; for instance, a low education may be related with low hygiene practices including eating of unwashed raw vegetables, and keeping cat- tle with drinking unpasteurized milk. However, the multivariate analysis allowed us to identified inde- pendent variables associated with HEV exposure. Other putative risk factors associated with HEV in- fection including low socio-economic status 23,30 and
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