Standard obesity treatment approaches should be tailored to the needs of patients. It is, however, dif- ficult to determine from the literature how often this occurs and whether it makes weight loss pro- grams more effective. Very few published reports of such adapted programs can be identified, particu- larly when a distinction is made from reports that include or focus on special populations but do not report any particular steps taken to modify the inter- vention for these populations. In addition, it is impossible to compare directly the amount of weight lost using specially adapted programs with that achieved when more standard approaches are used. Studies reporting these programs are sometimes pilot studies or descriptive reports that do not meet the standards of evidence set forth elsewhere in these guidelines. Where randomized controlled trials or quasi-experiments are available, they usually do not include an internal comparison with a program involving no adaptations. Appendix III illustrates the types of adaptations that have been reported. Large individual variation exists within any social or cultural group; furthermore, there is substantial overlap among subcultures within the larger society. There is, therefore, no “cookbook” or standardized set of rules to optimize weight reduction with a given type of patient. A theoretical and qualitative analysis of cultural appropriateness in obesity treat- ment programs has been conducted, and it provides some guidance for incorporating patient character-
Video and image search are quickly gaining prominence as Internet users become more accustomed to searching for and consuming rich media and video. Rich media, however, presents a host of challenges for search engines wishing to provide relevant results for video and image searches, principally, the lack of identifiable data for spiders to crawl and algorithms to parse. Many video search sites such as Google Video, AOL Video, and YouTube solve at least some of these challenges by only searching their own proprietary database of videos, which are uploaded either professionally or by users through a controlled process with fields to enter relevant data. Video sites that allow users to search the Web for available video content, such as Yahoo!, MSN, and Blinkx, rely upon publisher- or user-entered meta-tags to give a text-based description of the rich media. Such tags, however, are easily manipulated and difficult to police, thus potentially skewing search engine results. Companies such as Google and Blinkx are working on pattern recognition algorithms and trying to employ speech recognition technology to attempt to build a scalable software solution that provides more relevant results. However, we believe deployment of robust systems that can scan and categorize even a small portion of the available rich media content on the Web is still years away. Others such as Truveo (acquired by AOL) are looking at the closed-caption text to index the video clips. Given the current limitations of true Web-crawler-based video search, users are likely to continue to use sites like Google Video and YouTube (now owned by Google) to search their vast libraries of user and professionally uploaded content. Currently these sites are monetized through a combination of pre-roll ads (including some music videos on AOL and Yahoo!), contextual ads, and revenue sharing from sales of access to premium content (Google). Video searches, at least initially, may be much less likely to be commercially oriented, so monetization may remain difficult. The notable exception for this is video search on movies where the entertainment industry can start monetizing the search page
54. Mitchell LB, Exner DV, Wyse DG, et al. Prophylactic oral amiodarone for the prevention of arrhythmias that begin early after revascularization, valve replacement, or repair. JAMA 2005;294:3093–100. 55. Aasbo JD, Lawrence AT, Krishnan K, et al. Amio- darone prophylaxis reduces major cardiovascular morbidity and length of stay after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:327–36. 56. Bigger JT. Prophylactic use of implanted cardiac defibrillators in patients at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias after coronary-artery bypass graft sur- gery. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1569–75.
T I Z O N D E L A V A I N A ( R h i a o c t o n i a s o t a n ¡ ) U N A E N F E R M E D A D P O T E N C I A L M E N T E I M P O R T A N T E E N E L C U L T I V O D E L A R R O Z E N C O L O M B I A '[.]
H A C I A U N M O D E L O D E L A N A R R AT I V I D A D M I K H A I L B A K H T I N Y N O RT H RO P F RY E E N D I Á L O G O T O W A R D S A N A R R A T I V I T Y M O D E L M I K H A I L B A K H T I[.]
E n s eg und o l ug ar , s e p id e d et er m inar el t ant o ef ec t iv o d e c o s t e, o s ea el r éd it o anual en c ap it al iz ac ión c o m p ues t a que p l ant ea l a equiv al enc ia ent r e p r es t ac ión y c o nt r ap r es t ac ión r eal d el p r es tat ar io d e l a o p er ac ión, c o ns id er and o l as c ar ac t er ís t ic as c o m er c ial es que af ec t an a d ic h o p r es tat ar io ( i p ) :
U N I V E R S I D A D N A C I O N A L D E L A A M A Z O N I A P E R U A N A F A C U L T A D D E F A R M A C I A Y B I O Q U I M I C A “ A C T I V I D A D H I P O G L I C E M I A N T E D E L E X T R A[.]
1 3 . S e rvi c i o s d e T a r j e t a s d e D é b it o . L a s t a r j e t a s d e d é b it o s o nunin s trum e nt o d e p a g o s e g ur o y c o nfi a b l e , a tr a v é s d e l c u a ll o s c li e nt e s d e un a in s t it u c i ó n b a n c a ri a p u e d e nm o v il i z a rl o s f o n d o s d e s u s c u e nt a s b a n c a ri a s , r e a li z a rtr a n s a c c i o n e s a tr a v é s d e c a j e r o s a ut o m á ti c o s y p r o c e s a r c o m p r a s a niv e ln a c i o n a l e nl o s e s t a b l e c imi e nt o s c o m e r c i a l e s .
También se presentan manchones de bosque espinoso que sustituye a la SBC en suelos aluviales profundos. Con frecuencia esta clase de vegetación consiste en agrupaciones secundarias originadas por la tala o destrucción de diversos tipos de selva, sobre todo baja caducifolia (Miranda y Hernández, 1963), se caracteriza porque gran parte de sus elementos poseen espinas y miden comúnmente de 4 a 15 m de altura, dominan géneros tales como Acacia, Prosopis, Haemotoxylum y Pithecellobium, entre otros. A lo largo del río Balsas parches de vegetación ribereña, que comprende árboles de hoja perenne, compuesto principalmente por el género Salix (Meza y López, 1997), además de terrenos de cultivo y potreros generalmente abandonados (Figura 9).